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Ulawun is a basaltic and andesitic stratovolcano in West New Britain Province, on the island of New Britain in Papua New Guinea.

Ulawun
Ulawun.jpg
Ulawun issuing passive steaming
Highest point
Elevation2,334 m (7,657 ft) [1]
Prominence2,334 m (7,657 ft)
ListingUltra
Coordinates5°03′00″S 151°20′00″E / 5.05000°S 151.33333°E / -5.05000; 151.33333Coordinates: 5°03′00″S 151°20′00″E / 5.05000°S 151.33333°E / -5.05000; 151.33333
Geography
Ulawun is located in Papua New Guinea
Ulawun
Ulawun
Papua New Guinea
LocationWest New Britain, Papua New Guinea
Geology
Mountain typeStratovolcano
Volcanic arc/beltBismarck volcanic arc
Last eruption2019 June 26-present

About 130 km (81 mi) southwest of the township of Rabaul, Ulawun is the highest mountain in the Bismarck Archipelago at 2,334 metres (7,657 ft) and one of the most active volcanoes in Papua New Guinea. A total of 22 recorded eruptions have occurred since the 18th century; the first, in 1700, was recorded by William Dampier. Several thousand people live near the volcano. Because of its eruptive history and proximity to populated areas, Ulawun has been deemed one of the Decade Volcanoes.

Contents

Recent activityEdit

The last few years have seen almost constant activity at Ulawun, with frequent small explosions, and have caused great damage and loss of life.

The most recent eruption occurred at approximately 7am on 26 June 2019, and was quickly upgraded to a major sub-Plinian eruption, with ash climbing to 19 kilometres (62,000 ft).[2] Over 5000 people were evacuated, and flights into nearby Hoskins Airport were cancelled. Lava cut the New Britain Highway in three different locations.[3]

Volcanoes in Papua New Guinea are some of the world's most prolific sources of sulphur dioxide. Recent studies have shown that Ulawun alone releases about 7 kg/s of SO2, which is about 2% of the global total of SO2 emissions into the atmosphere.

ViewEdit

 
A steam plume from Ulawun drifting over the sea is clearly visible in this satellite image
 
Ulawun Volcano and Lolobau Island

Eruptive HistoryEdit

Start Date [1] Stop Date [1] Eruption Certainty [1] VEI [1] Evidence [1] Activity Area or Unit [1]
2019 Jun 27 In Progress In Progress Currently being observed
2018 Sep 21 2018 Oct 12 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2018 Jun 8 2018 Jun 8 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2017 Jun 11 2017 Nov 3 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2016 Oct 11 2016 Nov 18 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2013 Jul 8 2013 Dec 21 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2012 Nov 6 2012 Dec 11 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2012 May 7 2012 May 31 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2010 May 26 ± 4 days 2011 May 27 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 2007 Dec 25 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 1
2007 May 1 2007 May 1 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2006 Mar 1 2007 Jan 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2005 Mar 27 (?) 2005 Aug 9 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2004 Apr 12 2004 Apr 14 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2003 Apr 14 (?) 2003 Oct 10 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2002 Aug 22 (?) 2002 Nov 3 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2001 Aug 28 2001 Aug 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2001 Jan 16 (?) 2001 May 3 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit and NNE flank
2000 Sep 28 2000 Nov 1 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1999 Oct 20 1999 Oct 20 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1994 Apr 19 (?) 1994 Jun 16 ± 15 days Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1993 Jan 12 1993 Jan 31 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1989 Jan 1 1989 Dec 16 (?) ± 15 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1985 Nov 17 1985 Nov 22 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1984 Dec 30 1985 Jan 27 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1984 Aug 23 1984 Sep 11 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1983 Nov 6 1984 Mar 13 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1980 Oct 6 1980 Oct 7 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1978 May 7 1978 May 14 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, lower east flank
1973 Oct 4 1973 Oct 19 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1970 Jan 15 1970 Feb 11 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1967 Jan 22 1967 Dec 28 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1963 Mar 17 1963 May 2 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1960 Jul 29 ± 3 days 1962 Nov 16 ± 15 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1958 Feb 1 ± 60 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1951 Jul 2 ± 182 days ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain
1941 Jan 26 1941 Jan 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1937 May ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain
1927 Jul 1927 Sep 17 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1919 May 28 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1918 Jul 21 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1915 Apr Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
[ 1912 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited
1898 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1878 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1700 Mar 11 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

Decade MapEdit

Ulawun has been named one of the Decade Volcanoes, 16 volcanoes identified as being worthy of particular study in light of their history of large, destructive eruptions and their proximity to populated areas.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Ulawun". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  2. ^ "Ulawun volcano news". VolcanoDiscovery. Retrieved 2019-06-29.
  3. ^ Shelton, Tracey; Graue, Catherine (2019-06-28). "Papua New Guinea's Mount Ulawun volcano erupts and sends thousands of residents fleeing". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2019-06-29.
  • McGonigle A.J.S., Oppenheimer C., Tsanev V.I. et al. (2004), Sulphur dioxide fluxes from Papua New Guinea's volcanoes, Geophysical Research Letters, v. 31, issue 8
  • Johnson, RW, Davies, RA and White, AJR (1972) Ulawun Volcano, New Britain. Canberra, Department of National Development, Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics Bulletin 142, PNG 5.

External linksEdit