Tyromyces is a genus of poroid fungi in the family Polyporaceae. It was circumscribed by mycologist Petter Karsten in 1881.[1] The type species is the widely distributed Tyromyces chioneus, commonly known as the white cheese polypore.[2] The phylogenetic position of Tyromyces within the Polyporales is uncertain, but it appears that it does not belong to the "core polyporoid clade".[3] Tyromyces is polyphyletic as it is currently circumscribed, and has been described as "a dumping place for monomitic white-rot species with thin-walled spores."[4]

Tyromyces chioneus
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Polyporales
Family: Polyporaceae
Genus: Tyromyces
P.Karst. (1881)
Type species
Tyromyces chioneus
(Fr.) P.Karst. (1881)

The genus name is derived from the Ancient Greek words τυρός ("cheese") and μύχης (fungus").[5]

Description Edit

Tyromyces fungi have fruit bodies that are pileate (i.e., with a cap) to resupinate (crust-like). Fruit bodies are short-lived, and often mostly white, but turning a darker colour when dry. The colour of the pore surface is usually white to cream, sometime with greenish tinges. Like the cap surface, it darkens when dry.[6]

Microscopic characteristics Edit

The hyphal system is either monomitic (meaning the fungus contains only generative hyphae, which in this case have clamps) or dimitic, containing both generative and skeletal hyphae. The spores are smooth, thin-walled, and hyaline (translucent). They are allantoid (long with rounded ends) to ovoid (egg-shaped), and are non-reactive with Melzer's reagent. There are no cystidia in the hymenium, although there may be cystidioles (sterile cells of about the same diameter and shape as an immature basidium that protrude beyond the surface of the hymenium).[6]

Tyromyces are white rot fungi with a cosmopolitan distribution.[6]

Species Edit

As of September 2016, Index Fungorum accepts 119 species of Tyromyces.[7]

T. galactinus
T. kmetii
T. leucospongia
T. pulcherrimus

References Edit

  1. ^ Karsten, P.A. (1881). "Enumeratio Boletinearum et Polyporearum Fennicarum, systemate novo dispositarum". Revue Mycologique Toulouse (in Latin). 3 (9): 16–19.
  2. ^ Roody, W.R. (2003). Mushrooms of West Virginia and the Central Appalachians. University Press of Kentucky. p. 388. ISBN 978-0-8131-2813-9.
  3. ^ Binder, Manfred; Justo, Alfredo; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Lopez-Giraldez, Francesc; Sjökvist, Elisabet; Copeland, Alex; Foster, Brian; Sun, Hui; Larsson, Ellen; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Townsend, Jeffrey; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Hibbett, David S. (2013). "Phylogenetic and phylogenomic overview of the Polyporales". Mycologia. 105 (6): 1350–1373. doi:10.3852/13-003. PMID 23935031. S2CID 20812924.
  4. ^ Miettinen, Otto; Rajchenberg, Mario (2012). "Obba and Sebipora, new polypore genera related to Cinereomyces and Gelatoporia (Polyporales, Basidiomycota)". Mycological Progress. 11 (1): 131–147. doi:10.1007/s11557-010-0736-8. hdl:11336/194489. S2CID 255315066.
  5. ^ Donk, M.A. (1960). "The generic names proposed for Polyporaceae". Persoonia. 1 (2): 173–302.
  6. ^ a b c Ryvarden, Leif; Melo, Ireneia (2014). Poroid Fungi of Europe. Synopsis Fungorum. Vol. 31. Oslo, Norway: Fungiflora. p. 434. ISBN 978-8290724462.
  7. ^ Kirk, P.M. "Species Fungorum (version 26th August 2016). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life". Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  8. ^ Quanten, E. (1997). "The polypores (Polyporaceae s.l.) of Papua New Guinea. A preliminary conspectus". Opera Botanica Belgica. 11: 1–352.
  9. ^ Corner, E.J.H. (1989). Ad Polyporaceas V. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia. Vol. 96. p. 159.
  10. ^ Ryvarden, Leif (2012). "Studies in Neotropical polypores 32". Synopsis Fungorum. 30: 33–43.
  11. ^ a b Christiansen, M.P. (1960). "Danish resupinate fungi. Part II. Homobasidiomycetes". Dansk Botanisk Arkiv. 19 (2): 359.
  12. ^ Ryvarden, Leif (2012). "Type studies in Polyporaceae 27. Species described by P. Ch. Hennings" (PDF). Czech Mycology. 64 (1): 13–31. doi:10.33585/cmy.64103.
  13. ^ Zhao, J.D.; Zhang, X.Q. (1983). "New species of genus Tyromyces from China". Acta Mycologica Sinica (in Chinese). 2: 18–25.
  14. ^ a b Bitew, A.; Ryvarden, L. (2004). "Two new Tyromyces species from Ethiopia". Synopsis Fungorum. 18: 80–82.
  15. ^ a b c Mata, M.; Ryvarden, L. (2010). "Studies in neotropical polypores 27. More new and interesting species from Costa Rica". Synopsis Fungorum. 27: 59–72.
  16. ^ Atkinson, G.F. (1908). "Notes on some new species of fungi from the United States". Annales Mycologici. 6: 54–62.
  17. ^ Ipulet, P.; Ryvarden, L. (2005). "The genus Tyromyces in tropical Africa". Synopsis Fungorum. 20: 79–86.
  18. ^ a b Ryvarden, L. (2000). "Studies in neotropical polypores. 5. New and noteworthy species from Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands". Mycotaxon. 74 (1): 119–129.
  19. ^ a b c Ryvarden, L; Guzmán, G. (2001). "Studies in neotropical polypores 12. New and noteworthy polypores from Mexico". Mycotaxon. 78: 245–256.
  20. ^ Bondartseva, M.A. (1969). "Species novae Polyporacearum". Novosti Sistematiki Nizshikh Rastenii. 6: 142–146.
  21. ^ Corner, E.J.H. (1992). "Additional resupinate non-xanthochroic polypores from Brazil and Malesia". Nova Hedwigia. 55: 119–152.
  22. ^ Ryvarden, L. (1987). "New and noteworthy polypores from tropical America". Mycotaxon. 28 (2): 525–541.
  23. ^ Núñez, Maria; Ryvarden, Leif (1999). "New and interesting polypores from Japan" (PDF). Fungal Diversity. 3: 107–121.
  24. ^ Cunningham, G.H. (1965). "Polyporaceae of New Zealand". Bulletin of the New Zealand Department of Industrial Research. 164: 262.
  25. ^ Ryvarden, L.; Hausknecht, A.; Krisai-Greilhuber, I. (2006). "Coltricia grandispora and Tyromyces vitellinus, two new polypores". Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde. 15: 143–147.
  26. ^ Zhao, Chang-Lin; Liu, Shi-Liang; Ren, Guang-Juan; Ji, Xiao-Hong; He, Shuanghui (2017). "Three species of wood-decaying fungi in Polyporales new to China". Mycotaxon. 132 (1): 29–42. doi:10.5248/132.29.