The Type 22 frigate also known as the Broadsword class was a class of frigates built for the British Royal Navy. Fourteen were built in total, with production divided into three batches.

HMS Beaver, 30 June 1986
Class overview
Preceded byType 21
Succeeded byType 23
  • Batch 1 Broadsword
  • Batch 2 Boxer
  • Batch 3 Cornwall
In commission3 May 1979 – 30 June 2011
Active4 (with Brazil, Romania and Chile)
Retired10 (3 sunk as targets)
General characteristics
  • Batch 1: 4,500 tonnes, standard
  • Batch 2: 4,800 tonnes, standard
  • Batch 3: 5,300 tonnes, standard
  • Batch 1: 131.2 m (430 feet)
  • Batch 2: 146.5 m (480 feet)
  • Batch 3: 148.1 m (486 feet)
Beam14.8 m (48 feet)
  • Batch 1: 6.1 m (20 feet)
  • Batch 2 & 3: 6.4 m (21 feet)
  • Batch 1 plus Boxer, Beaver, London, Sheffield & Coventry: 2-shaft COGOG
  • 2 Rolls-Royce Marine Olympus TM3B high-speed gas turbines (54,000 shp / 40 MW)
  • 2 Rolls-Royce Tyne RM1C cruise gas turbines (9,700 shp / 7.2 MW)
  • Batch 2, Brave & Batch 3: 2-shaft COGAG (Brave remained COGOG)
  • 2 Rolls-Royce Marine Spey SM1A boost gas turbines (37,540 shp / 28 MW)
  • 2 Rolls-Royce Tyne RM3C cruise gas turbines (9,700 shp/ 7.2 MW)
  • 30 knots (56 km/h) full
  • 18 knots (33.3 km/h) cruise
  • Batch 1: 222
  • Batch 2: 273
  • Batch 3: 250
Sensors and
processing systems
  • 1 × Type 967/968 air-search radar
  • 2 × Type 910 or 911 fire-control radars
  • 1 × Type 1006 or 1007 navigation radar
  • 1 × Type 2016 sonar (Batch 1 & 2)
  • 1 × Type 2050 sonar (Batch 3)
  • 1 × Type 2031Z towed array sonar (Batch 2 & 3)
  • 1 × Type 162M bottom target classification sonar
  • 1 × Type 2008 underwater comms system
Electronic warfare
& decoys
NATO Seagnat Decoy Launchers
Aircraft carried
Aviation facilitiesFlight deck and hangar

Initially intended to be anti-submarine warfare frigates as part of NATO contribution, the ships became general purpose warships.

HMS Cornwall was the last Royal Navy Type 22 frigate, retired from service on 30 June 2011.[1][2]

Five Type 22s were scrapped and two more were sunk as targets. The seven other vessels were sold to the Brazilian, Romanian and Chilean navies; five of these remain in service, one was sunk as a target and one sold for scrap.

Ship naming edit

Broadsword, Boxer edit

It was originally envisaged that all Type 22s would have names beginning with 'B' (Broadsword, etc.), following the 'A' names used for Type 21 frigates (Amazon, etc.). This changed after the Falklands War when two replacement ships were ordered for the destroyers sunk (Sheffield and Coventry) and were named to commemorate them. Another vessel ordered earlier but not yet started, which was to be named Bloodhound was renamed London.[3]

Cornwall edit

The alphabetical progression was re-established with the Batch 3 ships (Cornwall, etc.) before being temporarily abandoned with the Type 23 class, named after Dukedoms (Norfolk, Lancaster, etc.). The Royal Navy's latest escort class – the Type 45 or Daring class – have re-introduced the alphabetical progression, using destroyer names from the 1930s and 1950s.

The names selected for the four Batch 3 ships were a mixture: two, Cornwall and Cumberland, revived County-class names previously carried both by First World War-era Monmouth-class armoured cruisers, and by Second World War-era County-class heavy cruisers. The other Batch 3s, Chatham and Campbeltown, were Town names, the former reviving a 1911 Town-class light cruiser name, and the latter commemorating HMS Campbeltown famous for participation in the St Nazaire Raid in 1942; the name for HMS Chatham was selected as a salute to the Medway town, where the Chatham Dockyard, established in 1570, had closed in 1984.

Design edit

The Type 22 was designed to be a specialist anti-submarine warfare vessel as part of the Royal Navy's contribution to NATO. During Royal Navy service the ships evolved into general purpose frigates with weapons for use against other surface ships, aircraft and submarines. They were built in three batches giving rise to three sub-classes, the first Broadsword of four ships, the second Boxer of six ships and the third and final, Cornwall of four ships. During their Royal Navy service the ships had enhanced command, control and co-ordination facilities that resulted in their often being used as flagships on deployments.[4]

The four Broadswords were sold to Brazil in the mid 1990s. In the early 2000s Romania acquired and modernised two of the Batch 2 ships, while a third was purchased by Chile.

Development edit

Following the cancellation of the aircraft carrier programme CVA-01 in 1966, the Royal Navy undertook a reappraisal of the surface fleet, and concluded that the following five new ship types were required:

Of these, the air defence destroyer appeared to had been given highest priority, the imperative being to get Sea Dart to sea in numbers to replace the air defence capability which would be lost with the retirement of the carrier fleet.

Due to the workload of the Admiralty design department in the 1960s, a private design (Type 21) was purchased as an interim stop-gap whilst the Type 22 was under development. The design process, already hampered by the priority given to the Type 21 and the urgently needed Type 42, was further protracted by attempts to produce a common Anglo-Dutch design. The first Type 22 order was placed in 1972 with Yarrow Shipbuilders; Yarrow undertook much of the detailed design work whilst overall responsibility remained with the Ship Department at Bath.

Rademaker, formerly Battleaxe, a Type 22 frigate of the Brazilian Navy

Batch 1 edit

The length of the first four Type 22s was dictated by the dimensions of the undercover Frigate Refit Complex at Devonport Dockyard. The ships would be powered by a combination of Olympus and Tyne gas turbines in a COGOG (combined gas turbine or gas turbine) arrangement. Machinery spaces were sited as far aft as possible to minimise shaft lengths. The after configuration was dictated by the requirement for a large hangar and a full-width flight deck. Electrical power was provided by GEC generators powered by four Paxman Ventura 16YJCAZ diesel engines, each rated at 1MW.[5]

Weapons fit was determined by the primary ASW role combined with a perceived need for a general purpose capability. The principal ASW weapons systems were the ship's Westland Lynx helicopter and triple torpedo tubes (STWS), with the large Type 2016 sonar a key part of the sensor fit. Air defence was provided in the form of two 'six-pack' launchers for the Seawolf (GWS 25) point-defence missile system. Surface warfare requirements were met by the provision of four Exocet missile launchers, the standard RN fit at that time. A pair of 40 mm L/60 Bofors were fitted in the first batch for patrolling and "junk-busting" on summer Indian Ocean deployments, but proved an impediment in the Falklands War where Type 22 captains considered they interfered with concentrating on the Seawolf setup.

The Broadsword design was unique to the Royal Navy in lacking a main gun armament. Although some of the Leander-class frigates had lost their main gun armament during upgrades, Broadsword was the first to be designed from the beginning without a large-calibre gun turret.

Ordering of Type 22s proceeded slowly, in part because of the comparatively high unit cost of the ships. The unit cost of the last Type 12Ms (Rothesay class) had been about £10m; Type 21s cost around £20m each; when the first Type 22s were ordered, unit costs were estimated at £30m though, by the time that the first ship (Broadsword) commissioned in 1979, inflation had driven this figure up to £68m, which was far higher than the cost of the contemporary Type 42s (HMS Glasgow, also commissioned in 1979, cost £40m).

Batch 2 edit

After the first four ("Batch I") ships, the design was "stretched", with the Frigate Refit Complex suitably enlarged. Visually, and in addition to the increase in length, the biggest difference was the sharply raked stem, usually indicative of bow sonar though none of the Batch II ships was thus fitted. An important addition to the Batch II group was a new computer assisted command system (CACS-1), replacing the CAAIS fitted to the Batch I ships. This could track up to 500 targets, including those detected by the ships' new Type 2031Z passive towed array sonar and ESM[6] The most significant change in this group of six Type 22 frigates is much more sophisticated electronic warfare systems, particularly the Classic Outboard system for the intercept of Soviet naval and submarine communications.[7] This very sophisticated and specialised versions of the Type 22 were specifically approved by the Prime Minister James Callaghan. The larger hull also improved sea keeping, but never achieved the expected quietness with towed arrays due to failure to raft mount the diesel generators. This would be important in operations in the Greenland-Iceland-UK gap where the ships were expected to play an important role in preventing and monitoring the passage of Soviet naval units at a critical stage of the Cold War.[8] A revised machinery installation was adopted for HMS Brave, with Rolls-Royce Spey turbines replacing the previous Rolls-Royce Olympus in a Combination Of Gas turbine Or Gas turbine (COGOG) arrangement. Though this reverted to the previous Olympus / Tyne COGOG arrangement for the next three batch II ships, the future machinery arrangement adopted for the batch III vessels would be Combination of Gas turbine And Gas turbine (COGAG) utilising the Spey / Tyne arrangement as fitted in HMS Brave. Further improvements from HMS Brave onwards included a taller helicopter hangar, giving the ships the ability to carry a single Westland Sea King or EH101 Merlin instead of two Lynx. By 1982, the quoted unit cost of a Type 22 had risen to £127m.

Broadsword and Brilliant participated in the Falklands War and replacements for the ships lost in the South Atlantic were all Type 22s.

Batch 3 edit

HMS Campbeltown, displaying some of the external differences of the Batch 3 units; the 4.5-inch gun instead of Exocet launchers, and the Goalkeeper CIWS visible in front of the foremast.

The four Batch III ships – Cornwall, Cumberland, Campbeltown and Chatham – were completed to a revised design which reflected lessons learned in the Falklands War. The weapons fit was changed, becoming more optimised for a general warfare role. The only major weapon systems shared with the previous vessels were the pair of six-cell Seawolf launchers and the torpedo tubes. The ships were fitted with a 4.5-inch (113 mm) Mk.8 gun, primarily to provide naval gunfire support for forces on land. Exocet was replaced by the superior Harpoon with eight GWS 60 missile launchers fitted laterally abaft the bridge, and each ship carried a 30 mm Goalkeeper CIWS to provide last-ditch defence against anti-ship missiles.

Electrical power in Batch 3 ships is provided by Paxman Valenta 12RPA200 diesel engines, replacing the Ventura engines used on earlier ships.[9]

In their final form, the Type 22s were the largest frigates built to date for the Royal Navy. Reflecting this, Type 22s were often deployed as flagships for NATO Task Groups.

Specifications edit

Batch 1 Batch 2 Batch 3
Displacement 4,400 tons 4,800 tons 5,300 tons
Dimensions 131 metres (430 ft) length
14.8 metres (49 ft) beam
6.1 metres (20 ft) draught
146.5 metres (481 ft) length
14.8 metres (49 ft) beam
6.4 metres (21 ft) draught
148.1 metres (486 ft) length
14.8 metres (49 ft) beam
6.4 metres (21 ft) draught
Armament 4 x single MM38 Exocet SSM
2 x sextuple GWS25 Seawolf SAM
2 x twin Oerlikon 30 mm/75
2 x single Oerlikon/BMARC 20 mm GAM-B01
2 x triple STWS Mk.2 torpedo tubes
4 x single MM38 Exocet SSM
2 x sextuple GWS25 Seawolf SAM
2 x twin Oerlikon 30 mm/75
Oerlikon/BMARC 20 mm GAM-B01
2 x triple STWS Mk.2 torpedo tubes
2 x quadruple RGM-84 Harpoon SSM
2 x sextuple GWS25 Seawolf SAM
1 x 30 mm Goalkeeper CIWS
1 x single 4.5-inch/55 Mk.8
2 x triple STWS Mk.2 torpedo tubes
Propulsion 2 x Rolls-Royce Olympus TM3B
2 x Rolls-Royce Tyne RM1C
2 x Rolls-Royce Olympus TM3B[note 1]
2 x Rolls-Royce Tyne RM1C
2 x Rolls-Royce Spey SM1A
2 x Rolls-Royce Tyne RM3C
Speed 30 knots

Construction and running costs edit

Construction programme edit

Pennant Name (a) Hull builder Ordered Laid down Launched Accepted into service[note 2] Commissioned Est. building cost[10]
Batch 1
F88 Broadsword Yarrow, Glasgow[11] 8 February 1974[11][12] 7 February 1975[11] 12 May 1976[11] 21 February 1979[13] 4 May 1979[14][15] £68.6M[16][17][18]
F89 Battleaxe Yarrow, Glasgow[11] 5 September 1975[11] 4 February 1976[11] 18 May 1977[11] 20 December 1979[11][16] 28 March 1980[11][19] £69.2M[16][20]
F90 Brilliant Yarrow, Glasgow[11] 7 September 1976[11] 25 March 1977[11] 15 December 1978[11] 10 April 1981[11][16] 15 May 1981[11][19] £102.2M[16]
F91 Brazen Yarrow, Glasgow[11] 21 October 1977[11] 18 August 1978[11] 4 March 1980[11] 11 June 1982[11][16] 2 July 1982[11][19] £112M[16]
Batch 2
F92 Boxer Yarrow, Glasgow[11] 25 April 1979[11] 1 November 1979[11] 17 June 1981[11] 23 September 1983[11][16] 22 December 1983[11][19] £147M[21]
F93 Beaver Yarrow, Glasgow[11] 25 April 1979[11] 20 June 1980[11] 8 May 1982[11] 18 July 1984[11][22] 13 December 1984[11][19] £148M[21]
F94 Brave Yarrow, Glasgow[11] 27 August 1981[11] 24 May 1982[11] 19 November 1983[11] 21 February 1986[11][22] 4 July 1986[11][19] £166M[21]
F95 London
Yarrow, Glasgow[11] 23 February 1982[11] 7 February 1983[11] 27 October 1984[11] 6 February 1987[22] 5 June 1987[19] £159M[21]
F96 Sheffield
Swan Hunter, Wallsend.[25] 2 July 1982[11] 29 March 1984[11] 26 March 1986[11] 25 March 1988[22] 26 July 1988[19] £151M[26]
F98 Coventry
(ex-Boadicea)[citation needed]
Swan Hunter, Wallsend.[25] 14 December 1982[11] 29 March 1984[11] 8 April 1986[11] 1 July 1988[22] 14 October 1988[19] £147M[26]
Batch 3
F99 Cornwall Yarrow, Glasgow[11] 14 December 1982[11] 19 September 1983[11] 14 October 1985[11] 19 February 1988[22] 23 April 1988[19] £131.05M[19]
F85 Cumberland Yarrow, Glasgow[11] 27 October 1984[11] 12 October 1984[11] 21 June 1986[11] 18 November 1988[22] 10 June 1989[19] £141.17M[19]
F86 Campbeltown Cammell Laird,[25] Birkenhead January 1985[11] 4 December 1985[11] 7 October 1987[25] 24 February 1989[22] 27 May 1989[19] £161.97M[19]
F87 Chatham Swan Hunter, Wallsend.[25] 28 January 1985[11][27] 12 May 1986[11] 20 January 1988[25] 4 May 1990[19] £175.28M[19]

On 11 January 1985, Mr. Dalyell asked the Secretary of State for Defence: "what is the latest cost estimate of a type 22 frigate, with stores, spare parts and ammunition." The Secretary of State for Defence, Mr. Lee, replied: "The average cost of a batch III type 22 frigate is currently estimated at about £140 million at 1984–85 prices. The cost of embarked helicopters, the first outfit of stores, spare parts and ammunition are estimated at about £18 million at the same price level."[28]

Running costs edit

Date Running cost What is included Citation
1981–82 £11.0 million Average annual running cost of Type 22s at average 1981–82 prices and including associated aircraft costs but excluding the costs of major refits. [29]
1985–86 £12 million The average cost of running and maintaining a type 22 frigate for one year. [30]
1987–88 £4.8 million The average annual operating costs, at financial year 1987–88 prices of a type 22 frigate. These costs include personnel, fuel, spares and so on, and administrative support services, but exclude new construction, capital equipment, and refit-repair costs. [31]
2001–02 £11.9 million Type 22 Batch 3 frigate, average annual operating costs, based on historic costs over each full financial year. The figures include manpower, maintenance, fuel, stores and other costs (such as harbour dues), but exclude depreciation and cost of capital. [32]
2002–03 £13.1 million [32]
2007–08 £32.45 million "The annual operating cost for the Type 22 Class of Frigates, which comprises four ships, is £129.8M. This is based on information primarily from Financial Year 07/08 the last year for which this information is available, and includes typical day-to-day costs such as fuel and manpower and general support costs covering maintenance, repair and equipment spares. Costs for equipment spares are also included, although these are based on Financial Year 08/09 information as this is the most recent information available. Costs for weapon system support are not included as they could only be provided at disproportionate cost." [33]
2009–10 £32.725 million "The average running cost per class... Type 22 is £130.9 million... These figures, based on the expenditure incurred by the Ministry of Defence in 2009–10, include maintenance, safety certification, military upgrades, manpower, inventory, satellite communication, fuel costs and depreciation.". [34]
2010–11 £16 million "The projected operating cost for HMS Cumberland in financial year 2010–11, based on actual costs to February 2011 and those estimated for the remainder of the financial year". [35]

Availability edit

In February 1998, in response to a written question in parliament by Mike Hancock, the Minister of State for the Armed Forces, Dr John Reid said: "Type 22 frigates achieved approximately 82 to 86 per cent. average availability for operational service in each of the last five years. This discounts time spent in planned maintenance."[36]

Ships – disposal and current state edit

Pennant Name Commissioned
by RN
by RN
Sale contract signed Re-commissioned
new owner
Home port Status
Batch 1
F88 Broadsword 3 May 1979[11] 30 June 1995 to Brazil.[37] 18 November 1994[38] 30 June 1995[38] Rio de Janeiro Brazilian Greenhalgh (F46), decommissioned 10 August 2021[39]
F89 Battleaxe 28 March 1980[11] 30 April 1997 to Brazil.[37] 18 November 1994[38] 30 April 1997[38] Active in Brazil as F Rademaker (F49)
F90 Brilliant 15 May 1981[11] 30 August 1996 to Brazil.[37] 18 November 1994[38] 31 August 1996[38] Laid up in Brazil as F Dodsworth (F47)
Sold for scrap 2012
F91 Brazen 2 July 1982[11] 30 August 1996 to Brazil.[37] 18 November 1994[38] 31 August 1996[38] Laid up in Brazil as F Bosísio (F48). Retired September 2015. Sunk as target 2017.[40]
Batch 2
F92 Boxer 22 December 1983[11] 4 August 1999[citation needed] decommissioned.
1999 deleted.[41]
Sunk as target in August 2004.[citation needed]
F93 Beaver 13 December 1984[11] 1 May 1999[citation needed] decommissioned.
1999 deleted.[41]
21 February 2001[citation needed] for scrap. Sold for scrap
F94 Brave 4 July 1986[11] 23 March 1999[citation needed] decommissioned.
1999 deleted.[41]
Sunk as target in August 2004 by the submarine HMS Sceptre and the frigate HMS Argyll.[42][43]
F95 London 5 June 1987 14 January 1999[citation needed] decommissioned.
1999 deleted.[41]
14 January 2003 to Romania.[44] 21 April 2005[44] Active in Romania as Regina Maria (F222)
F96 Sheffield 26 July 1988 15 November 2002 decommissioned.[45] April 2003 to Chile.[46] 5 September 2003[46] Valparaíso Active in Chile as Almirante Williams (FF-19)
F98 Coventry 14 October 1988 December 2001 decommissioned.[47]
2001 deleted.[41]
14 January 2003 to Romania.[44] 9 September 2004[44] Active in Romania as Regele Ferdinand (F221)
Batch 3
F99 Cornwall 23 April 1988 Decommissioned 30 June 2011[48] July 2013 for scrap.[49] Scrapped
F85 Cumberland 10 June 1989 Decommissioned 23 June 2011[50] July 2013 for scrap.[49] Scrapped
F86 Campbeltown 27 May 1989 Decommissioned April 2011 July 2013 for scrap.[49] Scrapped
F87 Chatham 4 May 1990 Decommissioned 9 February 2011 July 2013 for scrap.[49] Scrapped

In May 2000, the Secretary of State for Defence was asked the planned service life of London, Beaver, Boxer, and Brave and the forecast date for withdrawal from Royal Navy service, "prior to the decision in the Strategic Defence Review to dispose of them." The Minister of State for the Armed Forces, John Spellar, replied in a written answer: "The planned service for each ship was 18 years" and The additional information is given in the table."[51] Note that the 18 years was dated from the date of acceptance, not the date first commissioned.

Ship Pre-SDR date for withdrawal[51]
HMS Boxer 31 January 2002
HMS Beaver 31 December 2002
HMS Brave 29 February 2004
HMS London 28 February 2005

In July 2000, the Secretary of State for Defence was asked when he planned to withdraw the remaining Type 22 Batch II frigates from service. The Minister of State for the Armed Forces, John Spellar, replied that HMS Sheffield would be withdrawn in 2012 and superseded by a Type 45 destroyer, Coventry in 2001 superseded by HMS St. Albans, a Type 23 frigate[52]

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Brave was fitted with 2 x Rolls-Royce Spey SM1C in place of the Olympus TM3B
  2. ^ The term used in Navy Estimates and Defence Estimates is "accepted into service". Hansard has used the term "acceptance date". Marriott in his books uses the term "completed", as does Jane's Fighting Ships. These terms all mean the same thing: the date the Navy accepts the vessel from the builder. This date is important because maintenance cycles, etc. are generally calculated from the acceptance date.

Footnotes edit

  1. ^ "HMS Cumberland faces scrap heap". News & Star. 17 December 2010. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
  2. ^ "Defence Policy and Business | Changes to Royal Navy's surface fleet announced". Defence News. Ministry of Defence. 20 February 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
  3. ^ Friedman, Norman. British Destroyers & Frigates. p. 339.
  4. ^ "Frigate with formidable firepower". 23 March 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2018 – via
  5. ^ Marriott, Leo (1986). Type 22. London: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-1593-7. OCLC 16806469.
  6. ^ I.Ballantyne. Hunter Killers: the dramatic untold story of the Royal Navy's most secret service. Orion. London (2013), p 405
  7. ^ M.C.Potter. Electronic Greyhounds: The Spruance Class. Naval Institute Press (1995)
  8. ^ I. Ballantyne. Hunter Killers. Orion. London (2013) p407.
  9. ^ Marriott, Leo (1986). Type 22. London: Ian Allan. p. 65. ISBN 0-7110-1593-7. OCLC 16806469.
  10. ^ "Unit cost, i.e. excluding cost of certain items (e.g. aircraft, First Outfits)." – Text from Defences Estimates
    "They do not include other costs, such as those for Government Furnished Equipment (GFE)—as they are not held centrally for each ship and could be provided only at disproportionate cost." Bob Ainsworth, Minister of State for the Armed Forces, 16 July 2008.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq Marriott, 1986, page 103.
  12. ^ "Warship Building" Hansard HC Deb 24 November 1977 vol 939 cc869-70W
  13. ^ "Research Establishments" Hansard: HC Deb 23 October 1989 vol 158 cc357-8W 357W
    Marriott, Leo Modern Combat Ships 4, Type 22, pub Ian Allan, 1986, ISBN 0-7110-1593-7-page 103 said 24 January 1979.
  14. ^ Hansard 16 July 2008 : Columns 452W The response to a question to the Secretary of State for Defence, 16 July 2008, said 4 May 1979.
  15. ^ Marriott, 1986, page 103 says 3 May 1979.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h "Research Establishments" Hansard: HC Deb 23 October 1989 vol 158 cc357-8W 357W This section is mislabelled – it is the first part of the table that is continued on "Navy Vessels" Hansard: HC Deb 23 October 1989 vol 158 c360W .
  17. ^ Marriott 1986 page 20 says £68 million
  18. ^ Jane's Fighting Ships, 1982–83 says £68.6M.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Hansard 16 July 2008 : Columns 451W and 452W Questions to the Secretary of State for Defence, 16 July 2008.
  20. ^ Jane's Fighting Ships, 1982–83 also says £69.2M.
  21. ^ a b c d "Warships" Hansard: HC Deb 23 November 2000 vol 357 c271W
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h "Navy Vessels" Hansard HC Deb 23 October 1989 vol 158 cc358-61W .
  23. ^ "Boxer Class Type 22 frigates". Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  24. ^ "HMS Sheffield". Sheffield History – Sheffield Memories. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Sharpe, Richard Jane's Fighting Ships, 1988-89 Jane's Publishing, ISBN 0-7106-0858-6, pages 657–8.
  26. ^ a b Hansard 24 May 2007 : Column 1390W Archived 14 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ 2Navy Vessels" Hansard HC Deb 23 October 1989 vol 158 c360W states "28 January 1988" – the 1988 must be a scanning error for 1985.
  28. ^ "Type 22 Frigates". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). 11 January 1985. c561W. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
  29. ^ Hansard HC Deb 16 July 1982 vol 27 cc485-6W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence, 16 July 1982.
  30. ^ Hansard HC Deb 22 January 1987 vol 108 c730W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence, 22 January 1987.
  31. ^ Hansard HC Deb 10 March 1989 vol 148 c44W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence, 10 March 1989.
  32. ^ a b Hansard HC Deb 9 September 2003 vol 410 cc346-7W Question to the Secretary of State for Defence 9 September 2003.
  33. ^ Westminster, Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons. "House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 09 Sep 2009 (pt 0024)". Retrieved 19 April 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  34. ^ "24 November 2010 Written Answers". Archived from the original on 22 November 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  35. ^ Westminster, Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons. "House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 03 Mar 2011 (pt 0003)". Retrieved 19 April 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  36. ^ "Type 22 Frigates" Hansard 5 February 1998 : Column: 762
  37. ^ a b c d Sharpe, Richard Jane's Fighting Ships, 1996–97 Pub Jane's Information Group, 1996, ISBN 0-7106-1355-5 pages 766–7.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h Sharpe, Richard Jane's Fighting Ships, 2002–03 Pub Jane's Information Group, 2002, ISBN 0-7106-2432-8-page 60.
  39. ^ "Após 26 anos, Fragata "Greenhalgh" deixa o serviço ativo da Marinha". Defesa Aerea e Naval. 11 August 2021.
  40. ^ "Watch the Brazilian Navy sink a former Royal Navy frigate during missile exercises". Naval Today. 2 August 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  41. ^ a b c d e Sharpe, Richard Jane's Fighting Ships, 2002–03 Pub Jane's Information Group, 2002, ISBN 0-7106-2432-8-page 761.
  42. ^ "Naval Ships". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). 19 November 2003. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
  43. ^ "Royal Navy". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). 11 October 2004. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
  44. ^ a b c d Saunders, Stephen Jane's Fighting Ships, 2008–09 Pub Jane's Information Group, 2008, ISBN 978-0-7106-2845-9 page 628.
  45. ^ "BBC HMS Sheffield is decommissioned". BBC News. 11 October 2002. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
  46. ^ a b Saunders, Stephen Jane's Fighting Ships, 2008–09 Pub Jane's Information Group, 2008, ISBN 978-0-7106-2845-9 page 110.
  47. ^ "". Retrieved 26 January 2011.
  48. ^ "HMS Cornwall returns to Plymouth base for final time". 26 April 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
  49. ^ a b c d "Royal Navy frigates scrapped for £3m". 26 July 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2018 – via
  50. ^ "Navy News – Reporting from the Fleet". Retrieved 19 April 2018.[permanent dead link]
  51. ^ a b "Naval Vessels" Hansard HC Deb 22 May 2000 vol 350 cc318-9W
  52. ^ Hansard 11 Jul 2000 : Column: 449W Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Questions to the Secretary of State for Defence.

Bibliography edit