Rolls-Royce Tyne

The Rolls-Royce RB.109 Tyne is a twin-shaft turboprop engine developed in the mid to late 1950s by Rolls-Royce Limited. It was first test flown during 1956 in the nose of a modified Avro Lincoln.[1] Following company naming convention for gas turbine engines this turboprop design was named after the River Tyne.

Tyne
Engine of a Transall C-160.jpg
Rolls-Royce Tyne installed in a Luftwaffe C-160
Type Turboprop
Manufacturer Rolls-Royce Limited
First run April 1955
Major applications Breguet Atlantic
Canadair CL-44
Transall C-160
Vickers Vanguard

Design and developmentEdit

Designed in 1954 by a team under Lionel Haworth and intended as a more powerful alternative to the Dart, the RB.109 Tyne was initially designed for a power of 2,500 shp but when first run in April 1955 the engine far exceeded expectations and was soon being type-tested at 4,220 shp.[2] The Tyne was developed primarily for the four-engined Vickers Vanguard airliner, the prototype first flying on 20 January 1959 equipped with four Tyne Mk.506 of 4,985 e.s.h.p.[3] Production deliveries of the engine were made from mid-1959 onwards to power the 43 Vanguards delivered to British European Airways and Trans-Canada Airlines.

The engine was further developed with greater power and used in the later twin-engined Dassault-Breguet Atlantique long-range reconnaissance aircraft; also in the Canadair CL-44 and Transall C-160 transport aircraft.

A single stage HP turbine drives the nine-stage HP compressor. A three-stage LP turbine drives the six-stage LP compressor and, through a reduction gearbox, the propeller. The combustor is cannular.

The Mark 515 Tyne had a nominal takeoff power output of 5,730 hp (4,273 kW) equivalent power, flat rated to ISA+16.8C.

An agreement was signed in 1963 between Hispano-Suiza and Rolls-Royce for the licence production of the Tyne for the Breguet Atlantic and Transall C-160.[4] Each company that was part of the agreement built parts for itself and the partners, Rolls-Royce (United Kingdom) 20%, Hispano-Suiza (France) 44%, MAN (Germany) 28% and FN (Belgium) 8%.[4] The final assembly was undertaken by both MAN and Hispano-Suiza.[4] The first production batch was for 80 engines and 40 spares for the Atlantic.[4]

VariantsEdit

 
Rolls-Royce Tyne Mk.506 at RAF Museum Cosford
RTy.1
Takeoff power of 4,500 bhp (3,400 kW); cruise power of 2,455 bhp (1,831 kW) at 425 mph (684 km/h; 369 kn) and 25,000 ft (7,600 m) altitude, with specific fuel consumption (SFC) of 0.405 lb/hp/h (0.184 kg/hp/h; 0.246 kg/kW/h);[5] fitted to Vickers Type 951 Vanguard and Vickers Merchantman
RTy.11
Takeoff power of 5,050 bhp (3,770 kW) with SFC of 0.48 lb/hp/h (0.22 kg/hp/h; 0.29 kg/kW/h); cruise power of 2,845 bhp (2,122 kW) at 425 mph (684 km/h; 369 kn) and 25,000 ft (7,600 m) altitude, with SFC of 0.388 lb/hp/h (0.176 kg/hp/h; 0.236 kg/kW/h);[5] for Vickers Type 952 Vanguard
RTy.12
4,616 hp (3,442 kW) for Canadair CL-44
RTy.12
Takeoff power of 5,305 bhp (3,956 kW) with SFC of 0.449 lb/hp/h (0.204 kg/hp/h; 0.273 kg/kW/h);[5] for Short Belfast
RTy.20 Mk 21
5,667 hp (4,226 kW) for Breguet 1150 Atlantic and Breguet ATL2 Atlantique
RTy.20 Mk 22
5,670 hp (4,228 kW) for Transall C-160
RTy.20
4,860 hp (3,624 kW) for Aeritalia G.222T
RTy.20
6,035 hp (4,500 kW) for Transall C-160 and Breguet ATL2 Atlantique
RTy.22
projected military use engine rated at 7,075 hp (5,276 kW) equivalent
RTy.32
projected military use engine rated at 8,400 hp (6,264 kW) equivalent
Mk.101
(RTy.12)
Mk.506
Mk.512
Mk.515
Mk.515-101W
Mk 801
Mk 45
RM1A
Marinised ship powerplant
RM1C
Essentially similar to the RM1A
RM3C
Essentially similar to the RM1A

ApplicationsEdit

AircraftEdit

 
Rolls-Royce Tyne testbed Avro Lincoln demonstrating at Farnborough 1956 on just the nose Tyne, the four Merlins being shut down

ShipsEdit

The marine version, the Rolls-Royce Tyne RM1A, RM1C and RM3C remained in service as the cruise gas turbines in Royal Navy Type 42 destroyers and Type 22 frigates until the retirement of the 4 Batch 3 Type 22 frigates (2011) and the last remaining Type 42 Destroyer (2013).[6]

Engines on displayEdit

A Rolls-Royce Tyne is on public display at the Royal Air Force Museum Cosford.[citation needed]

Specifications (Tyne RTy.20 Mk 21)Edit

Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1962-63.[7]

General characteristics

  • Type: Twin-spool turboprop
  • Length: 108.724 in (2,762 mm)
  • Diameter: 55.12 in (1,400 mm)
  • Dry weight: 2,391 lb (1,085 kg)

Components

  • Compressor: Axial, six-stage LP, nine-stage HP
  • Combustors: 10 cannular flame tubes
  • Turbine: Three-stage LP, single-stage HP
  • Fuel type: Avtur
  • Oil system: Pressure spray/splash with dry sump using DERD 2487 spec. oil

Performance

See alsoEdit

Comparable engines

Related lists

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Jackson 1990, p. 414
  2. ^ "World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines - 5th edition" by Bill Gunston, Sutton Publishing, 2006, p.197
  3. ^ Jackson 1974, p. 328
  4. ^ a b c d "Tyne Agreement Signed". Flight International. 3 January 1963. p. 3.
  5. ^ a b c Federal Aviation Agency (April 1961). Project Hummingbird: A technical summary and compilation of characteristics and specifications on steep-gradient aircraft (Technical report). pp. 150, 157. hdl:2027/uiug.30112008588755. OCLC 841700405.
  6. ^ Peter Pugh (2 April 2015). The Magic of a Name: The Rolls-Royce Story, Part 3: A Family of Engines. Icon Books Limited. ISBN 978-1-84831-998-1.
  7. ^ Taylor, John W.R. FRHistS. ARAeS (1962). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1962-63. London: Sampson, Low, Marston & Co Ltd.

BibliographyEdit

  • Jackson, A.J. (1990). Avro Aircraft since 1908. Putnam Aeronautical Books. ISBN 0-85177-834-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Jackson, A.J. (1974). British Civil Aircraft since 1919 - Volume 3. Putnam & Company Limited. ISBN 0-370-10014-X.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

External linksEdit