Tummal Inscription

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The Tummal Inscription , one of the Babylonian Chronicles, is a writing of ancient Sumer from the time of the ruler Ishbi-Erra.[1] The writing lists the names of the rulers that built the temples dedicated to Enlil within Nippur[2] and temples of Ninlil in Tummal, [1][3] amongst whom were the king of Kish, Enmebaragesi and his heir Aga of Kish.[4]

The king in this very city (that is Nippur),
built the House of Enlil,
Agga the son of Enmebaragesi,
made the Tummal pre-eminent.
Then the Tummal fell into ruins for the first time.
Meš-Ane-pada built the Bur-šušua in Enlil's temple.
Meš-ki-aĝ-nuna, son of Meš-Ane-pada,
made the Tummal flourish and brought Ninlil into the Tummal.

— Old Babylonian tablet Tummal Inscription (1900-1600 BCE)[5][6]

The chronicle was written by two persons from Nippur and, most likely, Ur.[7][8][9] A number of religious analyses of the inscriptions find evidence within the text for a claim of divine intervention.[10]

The inscription was useful in the understanding of the archaeology and history of Gilgamesh.[1][5]


  1. ^ a b c D. Katz (1993). Gilgamesh and Akka. Brill Publishers. p. 13. ISBN 90-72371-67-4. Retrieved 2011-10-15.
  2. ^ Sears, Edward Seldon (2001). Running Through The Ages. McFarland. p. 15. ISBN 0-7864-0971-1. Retrieved 2011-12-29.
  3. ^ Edmond Sollberger, "The Tummal Inscription", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 16 (1962), pp. 40-47 JSTOR (Retrieved 2011-10-15). See Chavalas, Mark William (2006). The Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation - Blackwell Sourcebooks in Ancient History. John Wiley & Sons. p. 87. ISBN 0-631-23580-9.
  4. ^ Hallo, W. W.; Moyer, J. C.; Perdue, L. G. (1983). Scripture in context II: more essays on the comparative method. Vol. 2. Eisenbrauns. p. 57. ISBN 0-931464-14-5. Retrieved 2011-10-15.
  5. ^ a b Kramer, S.N. (1963). The Sumerians: their history, culture, and character. University of Chicago Press. p. 46. ISBN 9780226452326. Retrieved 2011-12-29.
  6. ^ "CDLI-Found Texts". cdli.ucla.edu.
  7. ^ Edwards, I. E. S. (1970). The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. p. 201. ISBN 0-521-07051-1. Retrieved 2011-12-29.
  8. ^ Romano, David Gilman (1993). Athletics and Mathematics in Archaic Corinth: The Origins of the Greek Stadion. American Philosophical Society. p. 9. ISBN 0871692066. Retrieved 2011-12-29.
  9. ^ George, A. R. (1992). Babylonian Topographical Texts. Peeters Publishers. p. 445. ISBN 9068314106. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  10. ^ Saggs, H. W. F. (1991). Greenspahn, F. E. (ed.). The Divine in History:Essential Papers on Israel and the Ancient Near East. NYU Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-8147-3038-8. Retrieved 2011-12-28.; see also Auguste Comte

See alsoEdit