- A triangulation of a topological space X is a simplicial complex K, homeomorphic to X, together with a homeomorphism h: K → X.
Triangulation is useful in determining the properties of a topological space. For example, one can compute homology and cohomology groups of a triangulated space using simplicial homology and cohomology theories instead of more complicated homology and cohomology theories.
Piecewise linear structuresEdit
For topological manifolds, there is a slightly stronger notion of triangulation: a piecewise-linear triangulation (sometimes just called a triangulation) is a triangulation with the extra property–defined for dimensions 0, 1, 2, . . . inductively–that the link of any simplex is a piecewise-linear sphere. The link of a simplex s in a simplicial complex K is a subcomplex of K consisting of the simplices t that are disjoint from s and such that both s and t are faces of some higher-dimensional simplex in K. For instance, in a two-dimensional piecewise-linear manifold formed by a set of vertices, edges, and triangles, the link of a vertex s consists of the cycle of vertices and edges surrounding s: if t is a vertex in this cycle, t and s are both endpoints of an edge of K, and if t is an edge in this cycle, it and s are both faces of a triangle of K. This cycle is homeomorphic to a circle, which is a 1-dimensional sphere. But in this article the word "triangulation" is just used to mean homeomorphic to a simplicial complex.
For manifolds of dimension at most 4, any triangulation of a manifold is a piecewise linear triangulation: In any simplicial complex homeomorphic to a manifold, the link of any simplex can only be homeomorphic to a sphere. But in dimension n ≥ 5 the (n − 3)-fold suspension of the Poincaré sphere is a topological manifold (homeomorphic to the n-sphere) with a triangulation that is not piecewise-linear: it has a simplex whose link is the Poincaré sphere, a three-dimensional manifold that is not homeomorphic to a sphere. This is the double suspension theorem, due to James W. Cannon and R.D. Edwards in the 1970s. 
The question of which manifolds have piecewise-linear triangulations has led to much research in topology. Differentiable manifolds (Stewart Cairns, J. H. C. Whitehead, L. E. J. Brouwer, Hans Freudenthal, James Munkres), and subanalytic sets (Heisuke Hironaka and Robert Hardt) admit a piecewise-linear triangulation, technically by passing via the PDIFF category. Topological manifolds of dimensions 2 and 3 are always triangulable by an essentially unique triangulation (up to piecewise-linear equivalence); this was proved for surfaces by Tibor Radó in the 1920s and for three-manifolds by Edwin E. Moise and R. H. Bing in the 1950s, with later simplifications by Peter Shalen. As shown independently by James Munkres, Steve Smale and J. H. C. Whitehead, each of these manifolds admits a smooth structure, unique up to diffeomorphism. In dimension 4, however, the E8 manifold does not admit a triangulation, and some compact 4-manifolds have an infinite number of triangulations, all piecewise-linear inequivalent. In dimension greater than 4, Rob Kirby and Larry Siebenmann constructed manifolds that do not have piecewise-linear triangulations (see Hauptvermutung). Further, Ciprian Manolescu proved that there exist compact manifolds of dimension 5 (and hence of every dimension greater than 5) that are not homeomorphic to a simplicial complex, i.e., that do not admit a triangulation.
Explicit methods of triangulationEdit
An important special case of topological triangulation is that of two-dimensional surfaces, or closed 2-manifolds. There is a standard proof that smooth compact surfaces can be triangulated. Indeed, if the surface is given a Riemannian metric, each point x is contained inside a small convex geodesic triangle lying inside a normal ball with centre x. The interiors of finitely many of the triangles will cover the surface; since edges of different triangles either coincide or intersect transversally, this finite set of triangles can be used iteratively to construct a triangulation.
Another simple procedure for triangulating differentiable manifolds was given by Hassler Whitney in 1957, based on his embedding theorem. In fact, if X is a closed n-submanifold of Rm, subdivide a cubical lattice in Rm into simplices to give a triangulation of Rm. By taking the mesh of the lattice small enough and slightly moving some of the vertices, the triangulation will be in general position with respect to X: thus no simplices of dimension < s = m − n intersect X and each s-simplex intersecting X
- does so in exactly one interior point;
- makes a strictly positive angle with the tangent plane;
- lies wholly inside some tubular neighbourhood of X.
These points of intersection and their barycentres (corresponding to higher dimensional simplices intersecting X) generate an n-dimensional simplicial subcomplex in Rm, lying wholly inside the tubular neighbourhood. The triangulation is given by the projection of this simplicial complex onto X.
Graphs on surfacesEdit
A Whitney triangulation or clean triangulation of a surface is an embedding of a graph onto the surface in such a way that the faces of the embedding are exactly the cliques of the graph. Equivalently, every face is a triangle, every triangle is a face, and the graph is not itself a clique. The clique complex of the graph is then homeomorphic to the surface. The 1-skeletons of Whitney triangulations are exactly the locally cyclic graphs other than K4.
- J. W. Cannon, The recognition problem: what is a topological manifold? Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, vol. 84 (1978), no. 5, pp. 832–866.
- J. W. Cannon, Shrinking cell-like decompositions of manifolds. Codimension three. Annals of Mathematics (2), 110 (1979), no. 1, 83–112.
- Edwards, Robert D. (2006), Suspensions of Homology Spheres, arXiv:math/0610573 (reprint of private, unpublished manuscripts from the 1970's)
- Edwards, R. D. (1980), "The topology of manifolds and cell-like maps", in Lehto, O. (ed.), Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians, Helsinki, 1978, Acad. Sci. Fenn, pp. 111–127
- Cannon, J. W. (1978), "Σ2 H3 = S5 / G", Rocky Mountain J. Math., 8: 527–532
- Whitehead, J. H. C. (October 1940), "On C1-Complexes", Annals of Mathematics, Second Series, 41 (4): 809–824, doi:10.2307/1968861, JSTOR 1968861
- Munkres, James (1966), Elementary Differential Topology, revised edition, Annals of Mathematics Studies 54, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-09093-9
- Moise, Edwin (1977), Geometric Topology in Dimensions 2 and 3, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 0-387-90220-1
- Thurston, William (1997), Three-Dimensional Geometry and Topology, Vol. I, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-08304-5
- Munkres, James (1960), "Obstructions to the smoothing of piecewise-differentiable homeomorphisms", Annals of Mathematics, 72 (3): 521–554, doi:10.2307/1970228, JSTOR 1970228
- Whitehead, J.H.C. (1961), "Manifolds with Transverse Fields in Euclidean Space", The Annals of Mathematics, 73 (1): 154–212, doi:10.2307/1970286, JSTOR 1970286
- Milnor, John W. (2007), Collected Works Vol. III, Differential Topology, American Mathematical Society, ISBN 0-8218-4230-7
- Manolescu, Ciprian (2016), "Pin(2)-equivariant Seiberg–Witten Floer homology and the Triangulation Conjecture", J. Amer. Math. Soc., 29: 147–176, arXiv:1303.2354, doi:10.1090/jams829
- Jost, Jürgen (1997), Compact Riemann Surfaces, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 3-540-53334-6
- Whitney, Hassler (1957), Geometric integration theory, Princeton University Press, pp. 124–135
- Hartsfeld, N.; Ringel, G. (1991), "Clean triangulations", Combinatorica, 11 (2): 145–155, doi:10.1007/BF01206358
- Larrión, F.; Neumann-Lara, V.; Pizaña, M. A. (2002), "Whitney triangulations, local girth and iterated clique graphs", Discrete Mathematics, 258: 123–135, doi:10.1016/S0012-365X(02)00266-2
- Malnič, Aleksander; Mohar, Bojan (1992), "Generating locally cyclic triangulations of surfaces", Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series B, 56 (2): 147–164, doi:10.1016/0095-8956(92)90015-P
- Dieudonné, Jean (1989), A History of Algebraic and Differential Topology, 1900–1960, Birkhäuser, ISBN 0-8176-3388-X