Treaty of Passarowitz
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The Treaty of Passarowitz or Treaty of Požarevac was the peace treaty signed in Požarevac (Serbian Cyrillic: Пожаревац, German: Passarowitz), a town in the Ottoman Empire (today in Serbia), on 21 July 1718 between the Ottoman Empire on one side and Austria of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Republic of Venice on the other.
|Signed||21 July 1718|
|Location||Passarowitz, Habsburg Kingdom of Serbia (now Požarevac, Serbia)|
Between 1714 and 1718, the Ottomans had been successful against Venice in Ottoman Greece and Crete (Ottoman–Venetian War) but had been defeated at Petrovaradin (1716) by the Austrian troops of Prince Eugene of Savoy (Austro-Turkish War of 1716–1718).
The treaty reflected the military situation. The Ottoman Empire lost the Banat of Temeswar, southeastern Syrmia, the central part of present-day Serbia (from Belgrade to south of Kruševac), and a tiny strip of northern Bosnia. Wallachia (an autonomous Ottoman vassal) ceded Oltenia (Lesser Wallachia) to the Habsburg Monarchy, which established the Banat of Craiova over it.
Venice ceded the Morea, its last remaining outposts in Crete, and the islands of Aegina and Tinos. Venice retained only the Ionian Islands (with Ottoman-occupied Kythera added to them), and the cities of Preveza and Arta on the Epirote mainland. In Dalmatia, Venice made some small advances, taking the areas of Imotski and Vrgorac in the hinterland.
The treaty gave the Habsburgs control over the northern part of present-day Serbia, which they had temporarily occupied during the Great Turkish War between 1688 and 1690. The Habsburgs established the Kingdom of Serbia as a crown land. The Habsburgs also formed the Banat into another crown land.
Austrian control lasted 21 years, until Turkish victory in the Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–39). In the 1739 Treaty of Belgrade, the Ottoman Empire regained northern Bosnia, Habsburg Serbia (including Belgrade), and southern parts of the Banat of Temeswar, and Oltenia was returned to Wallachia.
- Hochedlinger, Michael (2013). Austria's Wars of Emergence: War, State and Society in the Habsburg Monarchy, 1683-1797. London & New York: Routledge.
- Ćirković, Sima (2004). The Serbs. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
- Ingrao, Charles; Samardžić, Nikola; Pešalj, Jovan, eds. (2011). The Peace of Passarowitz, 1718. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press.
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