Treaty of Elvas

The Treaty of Elvas (Portuguese: tratado de Elvas) was a peace treaty between the Kingdom of Portugal and Crown of Castile, which ended the Portuguese-Castilian War of 1381-1382. It was signed by King Fernando I of Portugal and King John I of Castile on 10 August 1382 in the Portuguese city of Elvas after the Portuguese defeat. The terms of the treaty were as follows:

  • Portugal and Castile end the war and restore good neighborly relations; Portugal breaks its alliance with the Kingdom of England and joins the Franco-Castilian alliance in the Hundred Years' War.
  • Portugal recognizes Avignon antipope Clement VII as the legitimate pope and joins the Franco-Castilian side in the Western schism.[1][2]
  • To strengthen the alliance, the Portuguese Infanta Beatrice, the only daughter of King Fernando I and heiress to the Portuguese throne, marries the Castilian prince Ferdinand, a son of King John I.[1]
  • Castile returns to Portugal the cities of Almeida and Miranda, as well as all captured ships and captives.[1]

The treaty was negotiated by the Portuguese queen Leonor Teles, Count of Ourém, the Galician Juan de Andeiro,[3] Bishop of Lisbon, the Castilian Martinho de Zamora,[3] Bishop of Coimbra, the Castilian Juan Cabeza de Vaca,[3] Bishop of Guarda, the Portuguese Afonso Correa,[3] lawyer João das Regras and others.[1] Pedro de Luna (future antipope Benedict XIII), an envoy of Avignon antipope Clement VII, served as mediator between the Portuguese and Castilian parties.[1]

The Treaty of Elvas was a separate peace treaty concluded behind the backs of Portugal's English allies.[1] It removed Portugal from the Hundred Years' War for a time. As a chronicler recalls, learning of the betrayal of the Portuguese, the English knights angrily put down their helmets and smashed them with axes.[1] On 1 September 1382 Edmund, earl of Cambridge, took his ships and left Lisbon with his army.[1]

On 2 April 1383 the Treaty was supplemented and clarified in the Treaty of Salvaterra, according to which Beatrice had to marry John I of Castile.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Livermore 1947: 173.
  2. ^ Costa Gomes 2003: 157.
  3. ^ a b c d César Olivera Serrano. Correa, Alfonso // Real Academia de la Historia

SourcesEdit

  • Livermore H.V. History of Portugal. Cambridge: University Press, 1947.
  • Livermore H.V. A New History of Portugal. Cambridge: University Press, 1969.
  • Costa Gomes, Rita. The making of a court society: kings and nobles in late medieval Portugal. Cambridge University Press, 2003.
  • Menéndez Pidal, Ramón. Jover Zamora, José María. Historia de España. Espasa-Calpe, 2007. V. 14. p. 229.
  • Suárez Fernández, Luis. Historia del reinado de Juan I de Castilla: Estudio. Universidad Autónoma, 1977. p. 114.