Treaty of Córdoba
The Treaty of Córdoba established Mexican independence from Spain at the conclusion of the Mexican War of Independence. It was signed on August 24, 1821 in Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico. The signatories were the head of the Army of the Three Guarantees, Agustín de Iturbide, and, acting on behalf of the Spanish government, Jefe Político Superior Juan O'Donojú. The treaty has 17 articles, which developed the proposals of the Plan of Iguala. The Treaty is the first document in which Spanish (without authorization) and Mexican officials accept the liberty of what will become the First Mexican Empire, but it is not today recognized as the foundational moment, since these ideas are often attributed to the Grito de Dolores (September 16, 1810). The treaty was rejected by the Spanish government. Spain did not recognize Mexico's independence until December 28, 1836 (when they signed the Santa María–Calatrava Treaty).
|Signed||24 August 1821|
|Location||Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico|
|Condition||The treaty was rejected by Spain|
|Signatories|| First Mexican Empire |
Kingdom of Spain
|Ratifiers||Agustín de Iturbide, Regent of the Mexican Empire|
Juan O'Donojú, High Political Head of Spanish government in Mexico
In the treaty, New Spain is recognized as an independent empire, which is defined as "monarchical, constitutional and moderate." The crown of the Mexican Empire was offered first to Ferdinand VII of Spain. Should he not present himself in Mexico within the time to be determined by the Mexican Cortes (parliament) to take the oath of office, the crown would then be offered in sequence to his brothers, the Infantes Carlos and Francisco, and cousin, Archduke Charles or another individual of a royal house, whom the Cortes would determine. In the case that none of these accept the crown (as indeed did happen), the treaty then established that Cortes could designate a new king without specifying if the person needed to belong to a European royal house.
The idea in this last clause had not been considered in the Plan of Iguala, and was added by Iturbide to leave open the possibility of his taking the crown. At the same time, O'Donojú, as captain general and jefe político superior, had no authority to sign such a treaty, but was interested in preserving Mexico for the Spanish royal family, and probably signed without considering that Iturbide might have designs on the crown.
Signing and consequencesEdit
On September 27, 1821, the Army of the Three Guarantees entered triumphantly into Mexico City and on the following day, the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire was widely known. The Spanish Cortes refused to accept the validity of the Plan of Iguala or the Treaty of Córdoba. Spain did not recognize Mexico's independence until December 1836. Therefore, the Mexican Congress elected a Mexican monarch the following year. Iturbide was proclaimed emperor of Mexico on May 18, 1822. The monarchy lasted three years, and after the republican revolution of Casa Mata, the Congress no longer considered the Plan of Iguala or Treaty of Córdoba in effect.
- Muñoz Saldaña, Rafael (2009). México Independiente: el despertar de una nación [Independent Mexico: the awakening of a nation] (in Spanish). 1. Mexico City: Televisa. pp. 140–141. ISBN 978-968-5963-25-1.
- Riva Palacio, D. Vicente (ed.). México a través de los siglos [Mexico Through the Centuries] (in Spanish). 4. Ballescá y Comp. p. 94, footnote 1.
- "Tratados de Córdoba" [Treaty of Córdoba] (PDF) (in Spanish). Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas de la UNAM. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
- Riva Palacio, D. Vicente, ed. (1880). México a través de los siglos: La guerra de independencia [Mexico Through the Centuries: The War of Independence] (in Spanish). 3. p. 740.
- Orozco Linares, Fernando (1996). Fechas históricas de México [Historical Dates of Mexico] (in Spanish). Panorama Editorial. p. 128. ISBN 9789683802958. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- Álvarez Cuartero, Izaskun (2005). Visiones y revisiones de la independencia americana: México, Centroamérica y Haití [Visions and Revisions of American Independence: Mexico, Central America, and Haiti]. Aquilafuente (in Spanish). 84. Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca. p. 266. ISBN 978-84-7800-535-2.
- Muñoz Saldaña, Rafael (2009), p. 162