Toshi Ichiyanagi (一柳 慧, Ichiyanagi Toshi, 4 February 1933 – 7 October 2022) was a Japanese avant-garde composer and pianist. One of the leading composers in Japan during the postwar era, Ichiyanagi worked in a range of genres, composing Western-style operas and orchestral and chamber works, as well as compositions using traditional Japanese instruments. Ichiyanagi is known for incorporating avant-garde techniques into his works, such as chance music, extended technique, and nontraditional scoring. Ichiyanagi was married to artist Yoko Ono from 1956 to 1962.
|Died||7 October 2022(aged 89)|
(m. 1956; div. 1962)
(m. 1963; died 1993)
Early life and educationEdit
Ichiyanagi was born in Kobe on 4 February 1933. He studied composition with Tomojirō Ikenouchi, Kishio Hirao, and John Cage. From 1954 to 1960, he resided in New York City, where he studied at the Juilliard School and the New School for Social Research.
Ichiyanagi was married to Yoko Ono from 1956 to 1962. Ichiyanagi's decision to return to Japan, while Ono remained in New York, rendered the marriage untenable.
Returning to Japan in 1960, Ichiyanagi collaborated with the anti-art collective Neo-Dada Organizers.
Many of Ichiyanagi's early scores use graphic notation: Sapporo (1963) is one of the better known examples. Another notable early work is the 1960 composition Kaiki, which combined Japanese instruments, shō and koto, and western instruments, harmonica and saxophone. Another work, Distance (1961), required the performers to play from a distance of three meters from their instruments. Anima 7 (1964) stated that chosen action should be performed "as slowly as possible". In 1963, Ichiyanagi co-founded an avant-garde music collective called New Direction along with fellow composers Takehisa Kosugi, Yuji Takahashi, and Kenji Kobayashi, and others. The group disbanded in the late 1960s when most of its members relocated to New York, while Ichiyanagi remained in Japan.
Ichiyanagi's later works shifted away from experimental means toward more conventional forms, including symphonies, operas and concertos. He was the recipient of the 33rd Suntory Music Award (2001) and the Foundation for Contemporary Arts John Cage Award (2018). He has been honored with Japan's Order of Culture.
Personal life and deathEdit
Ichiyanagi's father was Shinji Ichiyanagi, a cellist, and his mother was Mitsuko Ichiyanagi, who gave piano lessons in their home and was her son's first piano teacher. After his marriage to Yoko Ono ended in 1962, Ichiyanagi was married a second time in 1963 to Sumiko, who died in 1993. They had a son, Kei (b. 1964), who is still living as of 2022.
Ichiyanagi died on 7 October 2022, at the age of 89.
As listed in Schott Music catalogue:
- 1968 From the Works of Tadanori Yokoo (electronic music)
- 1989 Hiraizumi Enjo
- 1995 The Last Will of Fire
- 1995/98 Momo
- 2002 Hikari
- 2004 Ikuta-gawa Monogatari
- 2005 White Nights
- 1962 Asma for piano and orchestra
- 1964 The Field for koto and orchestra
- 1965 Life Music for modulators, tape and orchestra
- 1968 Up To Date Applause for orchestra, rock band and tape
- 1973 Chi for noh flute and orchestra
- 1980 In the Reflection of Lighting Image for percussion and orchestra
- 1981 Piano Concerto No. 1 "Reminiscences of Space"
- 1982/86 Engen for koto and orchestra
- 1983 Violin Concerto "Circulating Scenery"
- 1983–86 Paganini Personal for marimba and orchestra
- 1984 Time Surrounding for percussion and orchestra
- 1986 Symphony for Chamber Orchestra "Time Current"
- 1987 Interspace for string orchestra
- 1987 Piano Concerto No. 2 "Winter Portrait"
- 1988 Symphony "Berlin Renshi" for soprano, tenor, orchestra
- 1989 Voices from the Environment
- 1989 Symphonic Movement "Kyoto"
- 1989 Concerto for Koto and Chamber Orchestra "The Origin"
- 1989 Existence for organ and orchestra
- 1991 Piano Concerto No. 3 "Cross Water Roads"
- 1991 Luminous Space for sho, ondes martenot and orchestra
- 1992 Interplay for flute and string orchestra
- 1993 Symphony for Chamber Orchestra No. 2 "Undercurrent"
- 1993 Cosmos Ceremony for ryuteki, sho and orchestra
- 1994 Symphony No. 4 "Recollection of Reminiscence Beyond"
- 1994 "Coexistence" for shakuhachi and string orchestra
- 1995 Symphony No. 3 "Inner Communications"
- 1996 Coexistence for ondes martenot and orchestra
- 1997 Symphony No. 5 "Time Perspective" – on the theme of opera Momo
- 1997 Symphony No. 2 "Undercurrent"
- 1997 Coexistence for orchestra
- 2001 Bridging
- 2001 Symphony No. 6 "A Hundred Years From Now"
- 2001 Between Space and Time for chamber orchestra
- 2002 Returning to Sounds Environment for shakuhachi and orchestra
- 2003 To the Memory of Nugshead for wind orchestra
- 2004 Concertato for harp and chamber orchestra
- 2007 Symphony No. 7 "Ishikawa Paraphrase"
- 2009 Piano Concerto No. 4 "Jazz"
- 2011 Piano Concerto No. 5 "Finland"
- 2011/12 Symphony No. 8 "Revelation 2011"
- 2012 Concerto for marimba and orchestra
- 2014 Symphony No. 9 "Diaspora"
- 2016 Piano Concerto No. 6 "Zen"
- 2016 Symphony No. 10 "Scenes of Various Memories"
- 2017 Double Concerto for violin, cello and orchestra
- 1954 Sonata for violin and piano
- 1956 Trio for 2 flutes and harp
- 1957 String Quartet
- 1960 Stanzas for string instrument(s)
- 1961 For Strings
- 1961 Duet for piano and string instrument(s)
- 1962 Sapporo for any number of players up to fifteen
- 1962 Activities for brass instruments
- 1964 String Quartet No. 1
- 1966 Modulator for Japanese instruments, string instruments, piano and modulator
- 1967 Appearance for 3 players and 2 operators
- 1978 Distance for noh flute, noh performer and ensemble
- 1978 Scenes I for violin and piano
- 1979 Scenes II for violin and piano
- 1979 Recurrence for flute, clarinet, percussion, harp, piano, violin and cello
- 1981 Wa for 13-string koto, 17-string koto, piano and percussion
- 1981 Time in Tree, Time in Water for percussion and piano
- 1981 Scenes IV for violin and piano
- 1981 Before Darkness Appears for accordion and piano
- 1982 Scenes V for violin and piano
- 1982 Paganini Personal for marimba and piano
- 1982 Flowers Blooming in summer for harp and piano
- 1984 Wind trace for three keyboard percussion (marimba, vibraphone and antique cymbal)
- 1985 Piano Quintet "Prāna"
- 1985 Yami o Irodoru Mono for 2 violins and piano (revised 2006 for 2 violins, cello and piano)
- 1985 Yochô for ryuteki and piano
- 1986 Présage for 6 ondes martinots
- 1986 String Quartet No. 2 "Interspace"
- 1986 Interspace for sho and harp
- 1988 Transfiguration of the Moon for sho and violin
- 1988 Ten, Zui, Ho, Gyaku for shakuhachi and ondes martenot
- 1989 Wind Gradation for ryuteki and piano
- 1990 Troposphere for ondes martenot and marimba
- 1991 Interrelation I for cello and piano
- 1990 Trio Interlink for violin, piano and percussion
- 1992 Aquascape for marimba, flute, piano and 2 percussions
- 1992 Cosmos of Coexistence for marimba and piano
- 1992 Reflection for 9 players
- 1992 Brightening Wind for sho and piano
- 1992 Tenryuji for ryuteki, sho, shakuhachi, koto, ondes martenot and percussion
- 1993 Intercross for violin and piano
- 1993 Toki Sayuru for koto and piano
- 1994 String Quartet No. 3 "Inner-landscape"
- 1994 Trio Fantasy for piano, violin and cello
- 1995 Cosmic Harmony for cello and piano
- 1995 Music for Violin, Shô and Piano
- 1997 Existence −In Memory of Kuniharu Akiyama− for clarinet and piano
- 1998 Interrelation II for violin and piano
- 1998 Mirage for English horn and double bass
- 1998 Mirage for accordion and harpsichord
- 1998 Mirage for sho and harpsichord
- 1998 Mirage for shakuhachi and piano
- 1999 String Quartet No. 4 "In the Forest"
- 1999 Metamorphosis for bassoon quartet
- 2001 Piano Quintet "Bridging"
- 2001 Spiritual Sight II for gagaku, reigaku, shomyo and cello
- 2002 Encounter for cello, ancient instruments, gagaku and shomyo
- 2005 Space Line for viol consort
- 2006 Variation "White Nights" for percussion ensemble
- 2006 Space Scene for flute, clarinet, violin, cello, accordion and piano
- 2007 Resonant Space for clarinet and piano
- 2008 Circular Space for flute, clarinet, cello, piano and percussion
- 2008 Hen'yo suru No-Kukan for Noh performers and 2 pianos
- 2008 Trio Webster for flute, clarinet and piano
- 2011 Paganini Personal for violin and piano
- 2011 Duo Interchange for violin and cello
Works for keyboardEdit
- 1959–61 Music for Piano No. 1 – No. 7
- 1972 Piano Media for piano
- 1975 Bi no Bi for piano
- 1976 Multiple Spaces for organ
- 1976 Time Sequence for piano
- 1980 Two Existence for 2 pianos
- 1985–99 Cloud Atlas I–X for piano
- 1987 Inter Konzert for piano
- 1989 Piano Nature for piano
- 1990 Inexhaustible Fountain for piano
- 1990 Dimensions for organ
- 1992 Fantasy for organ
- 1992 Farewell to... – To the Memory of Luigi Nono for piano
- 1992 In Memory of John Cage for piano
- 1995 Imaginary Scenes for piano
- 2001 Piano Space for piano
- 2003 Piano Poem for piano
- 2009 Sen no Image no tame ni for 2 pianos
- 2010 Piano Craft for piano
- 2010 Sonatina for piano
- 2011 Paganini Personal for 2 pianos
- 2012 Waltz Solemnity for piano
Works for other instrumentsEdit
- 1972 Vein of Sounds for harp
- 1972 Arrangements for percussion
- 1980 Scenes III for solo violin
- 1980 Wind Nuance for flute
- 1983 Portrait of Forest for solo marimba
- 1984 Cloud Figures for solo oboe
- 1984 Wind Trace for 3 keyboard percussion players
- 1986 Perspectives for solo violin
- 1987 Still Time III for harp
- 1989 Wind Stream for flute
- 1989 The Source for marimba
- 1990 Friends for violin
- 1991 Aki o Utu Oto for marimba
- 1991 Intoxicant Moon for ondes martenot
- 1993 Rhythm Gradation for timpani
- 1993 Omniscape for violin
- 1995 Generation of Space for double bass
- 1996 Still Time IV for flute
- 1996 Perspectives II for percussion
- 2000 In a Living Memory for flute solo
- 2001 Innervoice on the theme of Gagaku for marimba
- 2002 Ballade for marimba
- 2007 Green Rhythms for marimba
- 1967 Voice Act for mixed chorus and bassoon
- 1973 Voice Field for children's chorus and percussion
- 1977 Syntax for mixed chorus
- 1981 Aru Toki for soprano and piano
- 1983 Kinderkreuzzug for mixed chorus
- 1983 Kodomo no Jujigun for mixed chorus
- 1984 Heso no Uta for children's chorus
- 1985 Nadare no Toki for mixed chorus, marimba and piano
- 1985 Requiem for male chorus
- 1986 Mangetsu no Yoru no Kaiwa for mixed chorus and percussion
- 1989 Music for Art Kites for soprano and flute
- 1989 Genshiryoku Sensuikan "Onagazame" no Seitekina Kokai to Jisatsu no Uta for mixed chorus
- 1991 Song of Morning for female chorus and sho
- 1992 Desire for mixed chorus
- 1992 Hikari no Toride, Kaze no Shiro for mixed chorus
- 1993 White Horse for mixed chorus and tubular bells
- 1994 Scenes of Poems I for mixed chorus and cello
- 1994 My Song for mezzo-soprano and marimba
- 1995 Sora ni Kotori ga Inakunatta Hi for clarinet and mixed chorus
- 1995 Toge for soprano and harpsichord
- 1996/98 Voice Perspectives for voice and sho
- 1997 Oral Poetry of the Native American for mixed chorus and flute
- 1998 Scenes of Poems I for mixed chorus
- 1998 Three Songs for children's chorus (or female chorus) and marimba
- 2001 Furusato no Hoshi for mixed chorus and viola
- 2001 Futatsu no Uta for soprano and piano
- 2001 Michizane in Sanuki for mixed chorus and piano
- 2005/07 Attendance Flowers Funeral for soprano and piano
- 2005/07 Legend of the Water Flame for mixed chorus and piano
- 2007 "White Nights" Suite for mixed chorus and piano
- 2008 Coexistence for male chorus and traditional Japanese instrumental ensemble
- 2008 Three Songs for mixed chorus
- 2008 Mirai e for mixed chorus and piano
Japanese instrumental worksEdit
- 1980/86 Ôgenraku for gagaku ensemble, versions with and without shokyo
- 1982 Enenraku for gagaku ensemble
- 1983 Rinkaiiki for solo sangen
- 1983 Galaxy for solo sho
- 1983 Hikari-nagi for ryuteki and percussion
- 1984 Density for shakuhachi, 2 koto and sangen
- 1984 Clouds Shore, Wind Roots for reigaku and gagaku ensemble
- 1986 Still Time I for solo sho
- 1986 Still Time II for solo kugo (ancient harp)
- 1987 Reigaku Symphony "The Shadows Appearing through Darkness"
- 1987 Katachi naki Mugen no Yoha for solo koto
- 1988 Voices of Water for hitsu
- 1988 Sensing the Color in the Wind for shakuhachi and 2 kotos
- 1988 Prāna for ryuteki, hichiriki, sho, kugo, hensho and dancer
- 1988 Transfiguration of the Flower for koto, sangen and shakuhachi
- 1989 Water Relativity for hitsu and kin
- 1989 Reigaku Symphony No. 2 "Jitsugetsu Byobu Isso - Kokai"
- 1990 The Way for 2 ryuteki, 2 hichiriki, 2 sho, shakuhachi, biwa, 2 koto, 2 percussion and female dancer
- 1990 Linked Poems of Autumn for solo koto
- 1990 The Way II for 4 ryuteki, 4 hichiriki, 5 sho, shakuhachi, biwa, 2 koto, 3 percussion and 10 shomyo
- 1991 Projection for solo koto
- 1992 Compound Tune, "Resonance, Luster and Color" for shakuhachi and 2 koto
- 1994 Unchu Kuyo Bosatsu for gagaku, reigaku and shomyo
- 1997 Land Mystery for shakuhachi and 20-string koto
- 1998 Still Time V for solo hōkyō (similar to Chinese fangxiang)
- 1998 Reigaku Kokyo for reigaku ensemble
- 2001 Ceremonial Space for ryuteki, hichiriki, sho, shakuhachi, 2 koto and percussion
- 2001 Hakko for sho and koto
- 2008 Coexistence 2008 for ancient instruments
- 2009 Ka-Cho-Fu-Getsu for Japanese instruments
- 1960 Music for Electric Metronomes
- 1962 Parallel Music
- 1966 Life Music
- 1966 Situation for biwa, koto, violin, double bass, piano and multiplier
- 1966 Tinguely Mixture No.1, No. 2
- 1967 Extended Voices for voices and synthesizer
- 1969 Expansions for rock band and modulators
- 1969 Tokyo 1969 for various modulators, street sounds and rock band
- 1969 Theater Music
- 1969 Mandalama
- 1970 Environmental Music 1, 2 and 3
- 1970 Music for Living Space
- 1975 The World
- 1978 Perspectives for noh dancer, flute, violin, viola, cello, percussion and electronic music
- 2009 Transfiguration for harp and electronics
- 1961 Event and Musique Concrète happening
- 1963–73 Pratyāhārā Event
- 1966 Chair Event happening
- 1968 Farewell to the Summer Light, directed by Yoshishige Yoshida
- 1969 Eros + Massacre, directed by Yoshishige Yoshida
- 1970 Heroic Purgatory, directed by Yoshishige Yoshida
- 1971 Confessions Among Actresses, directed by Yoshishige Yoshida
- 1971 Metastasis, directed by Toshio Matsumoto
- 1973 Martial Law directed by Yoshishige Yoshida
- 1975 Everything Visible Is Empty, directed by Toshio Matsumoto
- 1975 Ātman, directed by Toshio Matsumoto
- 1980 Jun, directed by Hiroto Yokoyama
- 1986 Saya: Perspective in Love, directed by Seiji Izumi
- ^ a b c d e f g Merewether, Charles, ed. (2007). Art, Anti-Art, Non-Art: Experimentations in the Public Sphere in Postwar Japan, 1950–1970. Getty Research Institute. p. 121. ISBN 978-0892368662.
- ^ Japan, An Illustrated Encyclopedia, Kodansha International, Tokyo, 1993, p. 1155 mentions that she married him in 1956, but does not say until when they were married.
- ^ Merewether, Charles, ed. (2007). Art, Anti-Art, Non-Art: Experimentations in the Public Sphere in Postwar Japan, 1950–1970. Getty Research Institute. p. 121. ISBN 978-0892368662.
- ^ a b Michael Schell (2018-11-01). "Eye Music Revives a Memento of 1960s Openness". Second Inversion.
- ^ "Donald Keene, 7 others win Order of Culture", Yomiuri Shimbun, October 29, 2008.
- ^ Neil Genzlinger, "Toshi Ichiyanagi, Avant-Garde Composer and Pianist, Dies at 89," New York Times, October 28, 2022. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/10/28/arts/music/toshi-ichiyanagi-dead.html
- ^ "現代音楽界をリード、作曲家の一柳慧さん８９歳で死去…オノ・ヨーコさんと一時期結婚". Yomiuri. 8 October 2022. Retrieved 8 October 2022.
- ^ Schott Music (2020-02-28). "Toshi Ichiyanagi".
- ^ Bouhours, Jean-Michel (1996). L'art du Mouvement: Collection Cinématographique du Musée National d'Art Moderne, 1919-1996 (in French). Musée National d'Art Moderne. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
- Tokyo Concerts biographical page on Ichiyanagi (in Japanese), accessed 4 February 2010
- Sprintmail biographical page on Ichiyanagi at the Wayback Machine (archived June 17, 2012) (accessed 10 January 2014)