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Topoisomerase inhibitor

Topoisomerase inhibitors are chemical compounds that block the action of topoisomerases[1] (topoisomerase I and II), which are enzymes that control the changes in DNA structure[2] by catalyzing the breaking and rejoining of the phosphodiester backbone of DNA strands during the normal cell cycle.

In recent years, topoisomerases have become popular targets for cancer chemotherapy treatments. It is thought that topoisomerase inhibitors block the ligation step of the cell cycle, generating single and double stranded breaks that harm the integrity of the genome. Introduction of these breaks subsequently leads to apoptosis and cell death.

Topoisomerase inhibitors can also function as antibacterial agents.[3] Quinolones (including nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin) have this function.[4] Quinolones bind to these enzymes and prevent them from decatenation replicating DNA.

ClassificationEdit

Topoisomerase inhibitors are often divided according to the enzyme they inhibit:[5]

Numerous plant derived natural phenols (ex. EGCG,[7][8][9][10][11] genistein, quercetin, resveratrol) possess strong topoisomerase inhibitory properties affecting both types of enzymes. They may express function of phytoalexins - compounds produced by plants to combat vermin and pests.

Use of topoisomerase inhibitors for antineoplastic treatments may lead to secondary neoplasms because of DNA damaging properties of the compounds. Also plant derived polyphenols shows signs of carcinogenity, especially in fetuses and neonates who do not detoxify the compounds sufficiently.[12][13][14] An association between high intake of tea (containing polyphenols) during pregnancy and elevated risk of childhood malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumours has been found.[15][16]

Type I topoisomerase inhibitorsEdit

Human DNA topoisomerase I (Top1) is an essential enzyme that relaxes DNA supercoiling during replication and transcription. Top1 generates DNA single-strand breaks that allow rotation of the cleaved strand around the double helix axis. Top1 also religates the cleaved strand to reestablish intact duplex DNA. The Top1-DNA intermediates, known as cleavage complexes, are transient and at low levels under normal circumstances. However, treatment with Top1 inhibitors, such as the camptothecins, stabilize the cleavable complexes, prevent DNA religation and induce lethal DNA strand breaks. Cancer cells are selectively sensitive to the generation of these DNA lesions.[citation needed]

Top1 is a validated target for the treatment of human cancers. Camptothecins are among the most effective anticancer agents recently introduced into clinical practice. In this regard, the camptothecin derivative topotecan (Hycamtin) is approved by the U.S. FDA for the treatment of ovarian and lung cancer. Another camptothecin derivative irinotecan (CPT11) is approved for the treatment of colon cancer.[citation needed]

There are, however, certain clinical limitations of the camptothecin derivatives. These include: 1) spontaneous inactivation to a lactone form in blood, 2) rapid reversal of the trapped cleavable complex after drug removal, requiring prolonged infusions, 3) resistance of cancer cells overexpressing membrane transporters, and 4) dose-limiting side effects of diarrhea and neutropenia.[citation needed]

To circumvent these limitations, Dr. Mark Cushman at Purdue University and Dr. Yves Pommier at the National Cancer Institute developed the non-camptothecin family of indenoisoquinoline inhibitors of Top1. In contrast to the camptothecins, the indenoisoquinolines are: 1) chemically stable in blood, 2) inhibitors of Top1 cleavable complexes at distinct sites, 3) not substrates of membrane transporters, and 4) more effective as anti-tumor agents in animal models. The preclinical and IND package filed with the US Food and Drug Administration along with complete GMP production supporting the lead molecule are components of the published and non-published information covered by the license agreement with Purdue Research Foundation the National Cancer Center and Linus Oncology, Inc.[citation needed]

Linus Oncology has licensed the intellectual property that covers the development of these and related indenoisoquinoline derivatives. Phase I Study in Adults With Relapsed Solid Tumors and Lymphomas is ongoing (2012).[citation needed]

Indenoisoquinolines (green) form a ternary complexes of Top1 (brown) and DNA (blue) (Pommier et al.) and act as interfacial inhibitors.[citation needed]

There are several advantages of these novel non-camptothecin Top1 inhibitors as compared to the FDA-approved camptothecin analogs:[citation needed]

  • They are synthetic and chemically stable compounds
  • The Top1 cleavage sites trapped by the indenoisoquinolines have different genomic locations, implying differential targeting of cancer cell genomes
  • The Top1 cleavage complexes trapped by indenoisoquinolines are more stable, indicative of prolonged drug action
  • The indenoisoquinolines are seldom or not used as substrates for the multidrug resistance efflux pumps (ABCG2 and MDR-1)

Based on these highly favorable characteristics, two indenoisoquinoline derivatives (from a series of > 400 molecules), indotecan (LMP400; NSC 743400) and indimitecan (LMP776; NSC 725776) are presently under evaluation in a Phase I clinical trial being conducted at the National Cancer Institute for patients with relapsed solid tumors and lymphomas.[17]

Type II topoisomerase inhibitorsEdit

These inhibitors are split into two main classes: topoisomerase poisons, which target the topoisomerase-DNA complex, and topoisomerase inhibitors, which disrupt catalytic turnover.[citation needed]

Topo II poisonsEdit

Examples of topoisomerase poisons include the following:

  • eukaryotic type II topoisomerase inhibitors (topo II): amsacrine, etoposide, etoposide phosphate, teniposide and doxorubicin. These drugs are anti-cancer therapies.
  • bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitors (gyrase and topo IV): fluoroquinolones. These are antibacterials and include fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin.

Some of these poisons encourage the forward cleavage reaction (fluoroquinolones), while other poisons prevent the re-ligation of DNA (etoposide and teniposide).

Poisons of type IIA topoisomerases can target prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes preferentially, making them attractive drug candidates. Ciprofloxacin targets prokaryotes in excess of a thousandfold more than it targets eukaryotic topo IIs. Despite this, Ciprofloxacin is a potent dose-dependent type II poison, which is why it causes mass destruction of tissue cells.[18] This poor safety profile is one reason the FDA has advised fluoroquinolones only be used as a treatment of last resort.

Topo II inhibitorsEdit

These inhibitors target the N-terminal ATPase domain of topo II and prevent topo II from turning over.

Examples of topoisomerase inhibitors include :

  • ICRF-193.[19] The structure of this compound bound to the ATPase domain was solved by Classen (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2004) showing that the drug binds in a non-competitive manner and locks down the dimerization of the ATPase domain.[20]
  • genistein.

Synthetic lethality with deficient WRN expressionEdit

Synthetic lethality arises when a combination of deficiencies in the expression of two or more genes leads to cell death, whereas a deficiency in expression of only one of these genes does not. The deficiencies can arise through mutations, epigenetic alterations or inhibitors of the genes. Synthetic lethality with the topoisomerase inhibitor irinotecan appears to occur when given to cancer patients with deficient expression of the DNA repair gene WRN.[citation needed]

The analysis of 630 human primary tumors in 11 tissues shows that hypermethylation of the WRN CpG island promoter (with loss of expression of WRN protein) is a common event in tumorigenesis.[21] WRN is repressed in about 38% of colorectal cancers and non-small-cell lung carcinomas and in about 20% or so of stomach cancers, prostate cancers, breast cancers, non-Hodgkin lymphomas and chondrosarcomas, plus at significant levels in the other cancers evaluated. The WRN protein helicase is important in homologous recombinational DNA repair and also has roles in non-homologous end joining DNA repair and base excision DNA repair.[22]

A 2006 retrospective study, with long clinical follow-up, was made of colon cancer patients treated with the topoisomerase inhibitor irinotecan. In this study, 45 patients had hypermethylated WRN gene promoters and 43 patients had unmethylated WRN promoters.[21] Irinotecan was more strongly beneficial for patients with hypermethylated WRN promoters (39.4 months survival) than for those with unmethylated WRN promoters (20.7 months survival). Thus, a topoisomerase inhibitor appeared to be especially synthetically lethal with deficient WRN expression. Further evaluations have also indicated synthetic lethality of deficient expression of WRN and topoisomerase inhibitors.[23][24][25][26][27]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Definition of topoisomerase inhibitor - NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms".
  2. ^ "Dorlands Medical Dictionary:topoisomerase inhibitor".[dead link]
  3. ^ Mitscher, Lester A. (2005). "Bacterial Topoisomerase Inhibitors: Quinolone and Pyridone Antibacterial Agents". Chemical Reviews. 105 (2): 559–92. doi:10.1021/cr030101q. PMID 15700957.
  4. ^ Fisher, L. Mark; Pan, Xiao-Su (2008), "Methods to Assay Inhibitors of DNA Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV Activities", New Antibiotic Targets, Methods In Molecular Medicine, 142, pp. 11–23, doi:10.1007/978-1-59745-246-5_2, ISBN 978-1-58829-915-4
  5. ^ Vladimir, D'yakonov; Lilya, Dzhemileva; Usein, Dzhemilev (2017). "Advances in the Chemistry of Natural and Semisynthetic Topoisomerase I/II Inhibitors". Studies in Natural Products Chemistry. 54: 21–86. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-63929-5.00002-4.
  6. ^ Benchokroun, Y; Couprie, J; Larsen, AK (1995). "Aurintricarboxylic acid, a putative inhibitor of apoptosis, is a potent inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II in vitro and in Chinese hamster fibrosarcoma cells". Biochemical Pharmacology. 49 (3): 305–13. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(94)00465-X. PMID 7857317.
  7. ^ Neukam, Karin; Pastor, Nuria; Cortés, Felipe (2008). "Tea flavanols inhibit cell growth and DNA topoisomerase II activity and induce endoreduplication in cultured Chinese hamster cells". Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 654 (1): 8–12. doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2008.03.013. PMID 18541453.
  8. ^ Berger, S; Gupta, S; Belfi, CA; Gosky, DM; Mukhtar, H (2001). "Green Tea Constituent (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Inhibits Topoisomerase I Activity in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 288 (1): 101–5. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.5736. PMID 11594758.
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  14. ^ Ross, JA (2000). "Dietary flavonoids and the MLL gene: A pathway to infant leukemia?". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 97 (9): 4411–3. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.9.4411. PMC 34309. PMID 10781030.
  15. ^ Wang, R; Zhou, W; Jiang, X (2008). "Reaction kinetics of degradation and epimerization of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in aqueous system over a wide temperature range". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56 (8): 2694–701. doi:10.1021/jf0730338. PMID 18361498.
  16. ^ Plichart, Matthieu; Menegaux, Florence; Lacour, Brigitte; Hartmann, Olivier; Frappaz, Didier; Doz, François; Bertozzi, Anne-Isabelle; Defaschelles, Anne-Sophie; Pierre-Kahn, Alain (2008). "Parental smoking, maternal alcohol, coffee and tea consumption during pregnancy and childhood malignant central nervous system tumours: the ESCALE study (SFCE)". European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 17 (4): 376–83. doi:10.1097/CEJ.0b013e3282f75e6f. PMC 2746823. PMID 18562965.
  17. ^ http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01051635[full citation needed]
  18. ^ Mukherjee, A; Sen, S; Agarwal, K (1993). "Ciprofloxacin: Mammalian DNA topoisomerase type II poison in vivo". Mutation Research Letters. 301 (2): 87–92. doi:10.1016/0165-7992(93)90029-U. PMID 7678175.
  19. ^ Robinson, Helen; Bratlie-Thoresen, Sigrid; Brown, Robert; Gillespie, David A.F. (2007). "Chk1 is required for G2/M Checkpoint Response Induced by the Catalytic Topoisomerase II Inhibitor ICRF-193". Cell Cycle. 6 (10): 1265–7. doi:10.4161/cc.6.10.4225. PMID 17495539.
  20. ^ Baird, C. L.; Gordon, MS; Andrenyak, DM; Marecek, JF; Lindsley, JE (2001). "The ATPase Reaction Cycle of Yeast DNA Topoisomerase II. SLOW RATES OF ATP RESYNTHESIS AND Pi RELEASE". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (30): 27893–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M102544200. PMID 11353771.
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