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Antonio Joseph Accardo (born Antonio Leonardo Accardo; April 28, 1906 – May 22, 1992), also known as "Joe Batters" and "Big Tuna", was a longtime American mobster. In a criminal career that spanned eight decades, he rose from small-time hoodlum to the position of day-to-day boss of the Chicago Outfit in 1947, to ultimately becoming the final Outfit authority in 1972. Accardo moved the Outfit into new operations and territories, greatly increasing its power and wealth during his tenure as boss.
Accardo in 1960
Antonino Leonardo Accardo
April 28, 1906
|Died||May 22, 1992 (aged 86)|
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
|Other names||"Joe Batters" or "Big Tuna"|
Accardo was born on Chicago's Near West Side, the son of shoemaker Francesco Accardo and Maria Tilotta Accardo. One year prior to his birth, the Accardos had emigrated to America from Castelvetrano, Sicily, in the Province of Trapani, Italy. At age 14, Accardo left school and started loitering around neighborhood pool halls. He soon joined the Circus Cafe Gang, run by Claude Maddox and Tony Capezio, one of many street gangs in the poor neighborhoods of Chicago. These gangs served as talent pools (similar to the concept of farm teams) for the city's adult criminal organizations. Jack "Machine Gun" McGurn, one of the toughest hitmen of Chicago Outfit boss Al Capone, recruited Accardo into his crew, along with long time associate Tony Mazlack of Gary, Indiana.
During Prohibition, Accardo got the nickname "Joe Batters" after using a baseball bat to murder three mobsters who had betrayed the Outfit. Capone was allegedly quoted as saying, "Boy, this kid's a real Joe Batters." Chicago newspapers eventually dubbed Accardo "The Big Tuna," after a fishing expedition where Accardo caught a giant tuna and was famously photographed with his catch. In later years, Accardo boasted over federal wiretaps that he participated in the infamous 1929 St. Valentine's Day Massacre in which, allegedly, Capone gunmen murdered seven members of rival Bugs Moran's North Side Gang. Accardo also claimed that he was one of the gunmen who murdered Brooklyn gang boss Frankie Yale, again by Capone's orders to settle a dispute. However, most experts believe Accardo had only peripheral connections, if any, with the St. Valentine's Day Massacre and none whatsoever with the Yale murder, which was most likely committed by Gus Winkler, Fred Burke, and Louis Campagna. However, on October 11, 1926, Accardo may have participated in the assassination of Northside gang leader Hymie Weiss near the Holy Name Cathedral in Chicago.
In 1932, Capone was convicted of tax evasion and sent to prison for an 11-year sentence, and Frank "The Enforcer" Nitti became the new Outfit boss after serving his own 18-month sentence for tax evasion. By this time, Accardo had established a solid record making money for the organization, so Nitti let him establish his own crew. He was also named as the Outfit's head of enforcement. Accardo soon developed a variety of profitable rackets, including gambling, loansharking, bookmaking, extortion, and the distribution of untaxed alcohol and cigarettes. As with all caporegimes, Accardo received 5% of the crew's earnings as a so-called "street tax." Accardo, in turn, paid a tax to the boss of the Outfit. If a crew member were to refuse to pay a street tax (or paid less than half of the amount owed), they would be killed. Accardo's crew included future Outfit heavyweights Gus "Gussie" Alex and Joseph "Joey Doves" Aiuppa.
In the 1940s, Accardo continued to gain power in the Outfit. As the decade progressed, members of the Outfit were investigated for extorting labor unions in Hollywood. Nitti, who was claustrophobic and fearful of serving a second prison term, committed suicide in 1943. Paul "The Waiter" Ricca, who had been the de facto boss since Capone's imprisonment, took the role officially and named Accardo as underboss. Ricca and Accardo would run the Outfit for the next 30 years until Ricca's death in 1972. When Ricca subsequently received a 10-year prison sentence for his part in the Hollywood scandal, Accardo became acting boss. Three years later, when Ricca was barred from contact with mobsters as a condition for his parole, Accardo then became boss of the Outfit; in practice, he shared power with Ricca, who remained in the background as a senior consultant.
Under Accardo's leadership in the late 1940s, the Outfit moved into slot and vending machines, counterfeiting cigarette and liquor tax stamps, and expanding narcotics smuggling. Accardo placed slot machines in gas stations, restaurants and bars throughout the Outfit's territory. Outside of Chicago, the Outfit expanded into Las Vegas and took influence over gaming away from the Five Families of New York City. Accardo made sure that all the legal Las Vegas casinos used his slot machines. In Kansas and Oklahoma, he took advantage of the official ban on alcohol sales to introduce bootlegged alcohol. The Outfit eventually dominated organized crime in most of the western United States. To reduce the Outfit's exposure to legal prosecution, Accardo phased out some traditional activities such as labor racketeering and extortion. He also converted the Outfit's brothel business into call girl services. The result of these changes was a golden era of profitability and influence for the Outfit.
Accardo and Ricca emphasized keeping a low profile and let flashier figures, such as Sam Giancana, attract attention instead. For example, when professional wrestlers Lou Albano and Tony Altomare, wrestling as a Mafia-inspired tag team called "The Sicilians," came to Chicago in 1961, Accardo persuaded the men to drop the gimmick to avoid any mob-related publicity. By using tactics such as these, Accardo and Ricca were able to run the Outfit much longer than Capone. Ricca once said, "Accardo had more brains for breakfast than Capone had in a lifetime."
Change of leadershipEdit
After 1957, Accardo turned over the official position as boss to Giancana, because of "heat" from the IRS. Accardo then became the Outfit's consigliere, stepping away from the day-to-day running of the organization, but he still retained considerable power and demanded ultimate respect. Giancana still had to obtain the sanction of Accardo and Ricca on major business, including murders.
However, this working relationship eventually broke down. Unlike Accardo, the widowed Giancana lived an ostentatious lifestyle, frequenting posh nightclubs and dating high-profile singer Phyllis McGuire. Giancana also refused to distribute some of the lavish profits from Outfit casinos in Iran and Central America to the rank-and-file members. Many in the Outfit also felt that Giancana was attracting too much attention from the FBI, which was forever tailing his car around the Chicago metropolitan area. Around 1966, after spending a year in jail on federal contempt of court charges, Accardo and Ricca replaced Giancana with Aiuppa. In June 1975, after spending most of his Outfit-exile years in Mexico and unceremoniously being booted from that country, Giancana was murdered in the basement apartment of his home, in Oak Park, Illinois, while cooking Italian sausages and escarole.
Ricca died in 1972, leaving Accardo as the ultimate authority in the outfit.
In 1978, while Accardo vacationed in California, burglars entered his River Forest home. Shortly afterwards, the three suspected thieves and four related persons were found strangled and with their throats cut. Law enforcement officials believed Accardo had ordered the killings in retaliation for the burglary. In 2002, this theory was confirmed on the witness stand by Outfit turncoat Nicholas Calabrese, who had participated in all of the murders. The surviving assassins were all convicted in the Family Secrets Trial, and sentenced to long prison terms.
In 1934, Accardo met Clarice Pordzany, a Polish-American chorus girl. They later married and had four children. Accardo had two grandsons, one of whom was Eric Kumerow, who was drafted as a football linebacker by the Miami Dolphins. Accardo's granddaughter, Cheryl Kumerow, married former defensive lineman John Bosa, and his great grandsons are Los Angeles Chargers defensive end Joey Bosa and former Ohio State University defensive lineman Nick Bosa.
For most of his married life, Accardo lived in River Forest, Illinois. The six-bedroom, six-bath home he owned on Franklin Avenue in River Forest was complete with two bowling alleys, an indoor swimming pool and a pipe organ. When he started getting heat from the IRS about his apparent high lifestyle, he bought a ranch home on the 1400 block of North Ashland Avenue, in River Forest, and installed a vault. Accardo's official job was that of a beer salesman for a Chicago brewery.
Death and burialEdit
In the late 1970s, Accardo bought a home in Palm Springs, California, flying to Chicago to preside over Outfit "sit-downs" and mediate disputes. By this time, his personal holdings included legal investments in commercial office buildings, retail centers, lumber farms, paper factories, hotels, car dealerships, trucking companies, newspaper companies, restaurants and travel agencies.
Accardo spent his last years in Barrington Hills, Illinois living with his daughter and son-in-law. On May 22, 1992, Anthony Accardo died of respiratory and heart conditions at age 86. Accardo was buried in Queen of Heaven Cemetery, in Hillside, Illinois. Despite an arrest record dating back to 1922, Accardo spent only one night in jail or avoided the inside of a cell entirely (depending on the source).
In popular cultureEdit
- Pascual, Psyche (May 28, 1992). "Tony Accardo; Reputed Chicago Mob Boss". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 25, 2012.
- Koziol, Ronald and O'Brien, John (May 28, 1992). "Reputed mob boss Accardo dead at 86". Chicago Tribune. p. 27. Retrieved October 18, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
- Lombardo, Robert M. (2012). Organized Crime in Chicago Beyond the Mafia. University of Illinois Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-2520-3730-6 – via Project MUSE.
- Brashler, William (November 18, 1984). "Big Tuna". Chicago Tribune. p. 17. Retrieved October 18, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Tony Accardo: reputedly led Chicago mob". Hartford Courant. May 29, 1992. p. 72. Retrieved October 18, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
- Petacque, Art (May 14, 1970). "Needed: Big-time hood". The Tampa Times. p. 23. Retrieved October 28, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
- Albano, Lou (2008). Often Imitated, Never Duplicated: Captain Lou Albano. GEAN Publishing. pp. 23–25. ISBN 978-0-615-18998-7.
- Gavser, Bernard (January 29, 1961). "Tough Tony's Creed: Go Legitimate, Pay Uncle Sam". Press and Sun-Bulletin. p. 2. Retrieved October 18, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Ex-Chicago Crime Chief, Giancana, Found Slain". The Tennessean. June 20, 1975. p. 6. Retrieved October 27, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
- O'Brien, John (September 23, 1979). "Accardo Rebuffed in Hunt for a Home". Chicago Tribune. p. 4. Retrieved July 30, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "FBI agents raid home of Accardo". Chicago Tribune. November 11, 1978. p. 18. Retrieved October 18, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
- The Geniune Godfather, by Boehmer
- Koziol, Ronald and O'Brien, John (May 28, 1992). "Reputed mob boss Accardo dead at 86". Chicago Tribune. p. 34. Retrieved October 18, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Joey Bosa wins NFL Defensive Rookie of the Year".
- Peterson, Virgil (November 18, 1956). "Tony Accardo Lives it Up". Chicago Tribune. p. 32. Retrieved July 30, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Smith, Sandy (October 4, 1962). "Jury Acquits Tony Accardo". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved July 30, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Host Accardo Boasts Shorts at Lawn Party". Chicago Tribune. July 5, 1955. p. 15. Retrieved July 30, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Tony Accardo, Hiding Behind a Fence Again". Chicago Tribune. May 13, 1964. p. 64. Retrieved July 30, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Yates, Ronald; Koziol, Ronald (May 9, 1978). "Elite Palm Springs Becomes A Gangsters' Playground". The Evening Independent. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
[Palm Springs] has become Our Town for such Chicago luminaries as Anthony "Big Tuna" Accardo, Joey "The Dove" Aiuppa, James "The Turk" Torello, and Frank "The Horse" Buccieri.
- Goldsborough, Bob (May 3, 1998). "Real Boss". Chicago Tribune. p. 361. Retrieved October 27, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
- Brashler, William (November 18, 1984). "Big Tuna". Chicago Tribune. p. 24. Retrieved October 18, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
- Mappen, Marc (2013). Prohibition Gangsters: The Rise and Fall of a Bad Generation. Rutgers University Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-8135-6115-8 – via Questia. (Subscription required (help)).
- Wilson, Scott (2016). Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed. McFarland. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-4766-2599-7.
- O'Brien, John (May 30, 2017). "Low-key Sendoff For Accardo". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
- sequel (25 November 1995). "Sugartime (TV Movie 1995)". IMDb.
- Coen, Jeff, Family Secrets: The Case That Crippled the Chicago Mob, 2009 ISBN 978-1-55652-781-4
- Roemer, William F. Jr. Accardo: The Genuine Godfather. Ivy Books, 1996. ISBN 0-8041-1464-1
- Bureau of Narcotics, U.S. Treasury Department, "Mafia: the Government's Secret File on Organized Crime, HarperCollins Publishers 2007 ISBN 0-06-136385-5
- Works by or about Tony Accardo in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Anthony Accardo at Find a Grave
- My Kiddo, Joe Batters
- LIUNA - Tony Accardo Obituary 22
- Seize the Night: Sam "Momo" Giancana
- The Death of the Don: The Legacy of Tony Accardo by Richard Lindberg
| Chicago Outfit Boss
Sam Giancana and then took back over as boss post Giancana's death who was then later succeeded by Joey Aiuppa