Thomas Joseph Odhiambo Mboya (15 August 1930 – 5 July 1969) was a Kenyan trade unionist, educationist, Pan Africanist, author, independence activist, Cabinet Minister and one of the founding fathers of the Republic of Kenya. He spearheaded the negotiations for Independence at the Lancaster House Conferences and was instrumental in the formation of Kenya's independence party, KANU, which he served as its first Secretary General. He laid the foundation for Kenya's capitalist and mixed economy policies at the height of the Cold War and set up several of the country's key labour institutions.
|Minister of Justice|
1963 – 5 July 1969
|Preceded by||Office created|
|Succeeded by||Charles Njonjo|
Thomas Joseph Odhiambo Mboya
15 August 1930
Kilima Mbogo, Kenya Colony
|Died||5 July 1969 (aged 38)|
|Political party||Kenya African National Union|
|Alma mater||Ruskin College, Oxford|
|Cabinet||Minister of Justice and Constitutional Affairs |
Minister for Labour
Minister for Economic Planning and Development
Mboya's intelligence, charm, leadership and oratory skills won him admiration from all over the world. He gave speeches, debates, and interviews across the world in favour of Kenya’s independence from British colonial rule and spoke at several rallies in favour of the civil rights movement in the United States. In 1958, at the age of 28, Mboya was elected Conference Chairman at the All-African Peoples' Conference convened by Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. He helped build the Trade Union Movement in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania and across Africa. At one time, he served as the Africa Representative to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU). In May 1959, Mboya called a conference in Lagos, Nigeria to form the first All-Africa ICFTU labour organisation.
He worked with then United States Senator John F. Kennedy (later president of the US) and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr to create education opportunities for African students; this effort resulted in African Airlifts of the 1950s - 60s, which enabled African students to study at US colleges. Notable beneficiaries of this airlift were Wangari Maathai, who later won the Nobel Peace Prize, and Barack Hussein Obama Sr., father of the 44th president of the United States. In 1960, Mboya was the first Kenyan to be featured on the cover of Time Magazine of the United States, in a painting by Bernard Safran.
Early life and educationEdit
Thomas Joseph Odhiambo "Tom" Mboya was born in Kilima Mbogo in Central Kenya, to Leonardus Ndiege and Marcella Awour, who were low income sisal farmers. He studied at St.Marys school, Yala for A-level and later sat for a Cambridge School Certificate in 1946 at Holy Ghost College (later Mangu High School). He attended Royal Sanitary Institute's Medical Training School for Sanitary Inspectors at Nairobi, qualifying as an inspector in 1950.
Career and politicsEdit
Mboya started working for the city of Nairobi and became involved with the trade union. While still working as a trade union official, Tom Mboya enrolled for a Matriculation Exemption Certificate with the Efficiency Correspondence College of South Africa, majoring in Economics. In 1955 he went to Ruskin College, Oxford to study Industrial Management.
While employed by the Nairobi City Council as a sanitary inspector, Mboya was elected as chairman of the African Staff Association. He developed it into a trade union, which became known as The Kenya Local Government Workers Union. When the colonial government refused to recognize the union, Mboya sued for recognition and won. In 1953 during the Mau Mau War for Independence, Jomo Kenyatta and other leaders of the independence party, Kenya African Union (KAU), were arrested. They asked Mboya to take up leadership of the KAU and continue the struggle.
However, the government banned the KAU. Mboya turned to using the trade unions as a platform to fight for independence. He was elected as Secretary General of the Kenya Federation of Labour (KFL), the umbrella body for trade unions in Kenya. In that role, Mboya gave speeches in London and Washington against British atrocities in Kenya; he also organized several strikes seeking better working conditions for African workers. At that point, the colonial government nearly closed down the labour movement in the effort to suppress his activities. Mboya reached out to other labour leaders across the world, more so in the ICFTU, including American A. Philip Randolph, with whom he was close. Mboya raised funds to build a headquarters for the KFL.
In 1956, after Mboya had returned from the United Kingdom, the colonial government allowed black Africans to run for office and serve in the Legislative Assembly. Tom Mboya was elected from Nairobi. He was elected secretary of the African Caucus (Called African Elected Members Organization - AEMO) and continued a campaign for independence, as well as seeking freedom for Jomo Kenyatta and other political prisoners. He used his incredible diplomacy skills to get support for the independence movement from foreign countries.
In 1961, Jomo Kenyatta was released and together with Oginga Odinga and Mboya, they formed the Kenya African National Union. It negotiated with the UK and colonial government to set conditions for Kenya's independence in 1964. Mboya was instrumental in the talks. He also designed the flag for the new republic.
Kenya gains independenceEdit
In the Independent Republic of Kenya, Mboya was appointed as first Cabinet Minister for Labour. He created the National Social Security Fund, Kenya’s social security scheme. He also established an Industrial Court to hear labour-management cases. He was later appointed to the Economic Planning Ministry. Together with Finance Minister Mwai Kibaki, he issued Sessional Paper 10, which defined Kenya’s form of economic policies. Mboya's development plans at the Ministry were credited for Kenya's development rate of 7%, which was sustained during his tenure as the Planning Minister.
Marriage and familyEdit
He married Pamela Mboya (née Odede) in 1960 at St. Peters Clavers Church, Nairobi. They had five children: Maureen Odero; Nairobi First Lady Dr. Susan Mboya; Luke Mboya; Peter Mboya; Patrick Mboya(who died aged four). After Tom Mboya's death, his widow Pamela Mboya had another son with her brother-in law, in accordance to Luo tradition, whom she named Tom Mboya, Jr. in his honour. She was appointed as an ambassador.
Death and legacyEdit
Mboya was fatally shot by Nahashon Njoroge in 1969 on Government Road (now Moi Avenue) as he was leaving a chemist, but it was reported in Nairobi that Njoroge had died at 3am on November 8. According to these reports, he went to his death without explaining what he had meant when he asked police after his arrest: Why don’t you go after the big man?” It was due to such statements which rose suspicions that Mboya's shooting was a political assassination. Outrage and despair over his assassination led to riots in the major cities of Kenya. Mboya was buried in an emotional ceremony at his Rusinga Island ancestral home. President Jomo Kenyatta gave a eulogy at Mboya’s requiem mass, saying of his colleague, "Kenya's independence would have been seriously compromised were it not for the courage and steadfastness of Tom Mboya."
- A statute of Mboya was installed on Moi Avenue, where he was killed.
- The nearby busy Victoria Street was renamed Tom Mboya Street in his honour.
Mboya was educated at various Catholic mission schools. In 1942, he joined a Catholic Secondary School in Yala, in Nyanza province, St. Mary's School Yala. In 1946, he went to the Holy Ghost College (later Mang'u High School), where he passed well enough to proceed to do his Cambridge School Certificate. In 1948, Mboya joined the Royal Sanitary Institute's Medical Training School for Sanitary Inspectors at Nairobi, qualifying as an inspector in 1950. In 1955, he received a scholarship from Britain's Trades Union Congress to attend Ruskin College, Oxford, where he studied industrial management. Upon his graduation in 1956, he returned to Kenya and joined politics at a time when the British government was gaining control over the Kenya Land Freedom Army Mau Mau uprising.
Mboya's political life started immediately after he was employed at Nairobi City Council as a sanitary inspector in 1950. A year after joining African Staff Association, he was elected its president and immediately embarked at molding the association into a trade union named the Kenya Local Government Workers' Union. This made his employer suspicious, but before they could sack him, he resigned. However, he was able to continue working for the Kenya Labour Workers Union as secretary-general before embarking on his studies in Britain. Upon returning from Britain, he contested and won a seat against incumbent C.M.G. Argwings-Kodhek. In 1957, he became dissatisfied with the low number of African leaders (only eight out of fifty at the time) in the Legislative council and decided to form his own party, the People's Congress Party.
At that time, Mboya developed a close relationship with Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana who, like Mboya, was a Pan-Africanist. In 1958, during the All-African Peoples' Conference in Ghana, convened by Kwame Nkurumah, Mboya was elected as the Conference Chairman at the age of 28.
In 1959, together with the African-American Students Foundation in the United States, Mboya organized the Airlift Africa project, through which 81 Kenyan students were flown to the U.S. to study at U.S. universities. Barack Obama's father, Barack Obama, Sr., was a friend of Mboya's and a fellow Luo; he received a scholarship through the AASF and occasional grants for books and expenses, although he was not on the first airlift plane in 1959, since he was headed for Hawaii, not the continental U.S.. In 1960, the Kennedy Foundation agreed to underwrite the airlift, after Mboya visited Senator Jack Kennedy to ask for assistance, and Airlift Africa was extended to Uganda, Tanganyika and Zanzibar (now Tanzania), Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia), Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), and Nyasaland (now Malawi). Some 230 African students received scholarships to study at Class I accredited colleges in the United States in 1960, and hundreds more in 1961–63.
In 1960, Mboya's People's Congress Party joined with Kenya African Union and Kenya Independence Movement to form the Kenya African National Union (KANU) in an attempt to form a party that would both transcend tribal politics and prepare for participation in the Lancaster House Conference (held at Lancaster House in London) where Kenya's constitutional framework and independence were to be negotiated. As Secretary General of KANU, Mboya headed the Kenyan delegation.
After Kenya's independence on 1 June 1963, Mboya was elected as an MP for Nairobi Central Constituency (today: Kamukunji Constituency) and became Minister of Justice and Constitutional Affairs, and later Minister for Economic Planning and Development. In this role, he wrote the important "Sessional Paper 10" on Harambee and the Principles of African Socialism (adopted by Parliament in 1964), which provided a model of government based on African values.
He retained the portfolio as Minister for Economic Planning and Development until his death at age 38 when he was gunned down on 5 July 1969 on Government Road (now Moi Avenue), Nairobi CBD after visiting Chaani's Pharmacy. Nahashon Isaac Njenga Njoroge was convicted for the murder and later hanged. After his arrest, Njoroge asked: "Why don't you go after the big man?" Who he meant by "the big man" was never divulged, but fed conspiracy theories since Mboya was seen as a possible contender for the presidency. The mostly tribal elite around Kenyatta has been blamed for his death, which has never been subject of a judicial inquiry. Others blame supporters of Jaramogi Oginga Odinga who feared that Mboya was attracting too much support from members of the Luo tribe away from him. During Mboya's burial, a mass demonstration against the attendance of President Jomo Kenyatta led to a big skirmish, with two people shot dead. The demonstrators believed that Kenyatta was involved in the death of Mboya, thus eliminating him as a threat to his political career, although this remains a disputed matter.
Mboya's role in Kenya's politics and transformation is the subject of increasing interest, especially with the prominence of American politician Barack Obama. Obama's father, Barack Obama, Sr., was a US-educated Kenyan who benefited from Mboya's scholarship programme in the 1960s, and married during his stay there, siring the future Illinois Senator and President. Obama Sr. had seen Mboya shortly before the assassination, and testified at the ensuing trial. Obama Sr. believed he was later targeted in a hit-and-run incident as a result of this testimony.
Mboya's father Leonard Ndiege was an overseer at a sisal plantation in Kilima Mbogo. Mboya married Pamela Mboya in 1962 (a daughter of the politician Walter Odede). They had five children. Their daughters are Maureen Odero, a high court judge in Mombasa, and Susan Mboya, a Coca-Cola executive, who continues the education airlift program initiated by Tom Mboya, and is married to former Nairobi governor Evans Kidero. Their sons included Lucas Mboya, and twin brothers Peter (died in a 2004 motorcycle accident) and Patrick (died aged four).
Mboya is commemorated by the Tom Mboya Monument in Nairobi. He also planned for the design of Kenyan flag and master plan of Nairobi city.
- Kenya Human Rights Commission, "An evening with Tom Mboya"
- David Goldsworthy, Tom Mboya The Man Kenya wanted to Forget, Heinnemann, 1982 at Page 191 to 195
- Bethwell A. Ogot, William Ochieng, Decolonization and Independence in Kenya: 1940 – 1963, East African Publishers, 1995, Page 65
- Nzau Musau (27 July 2015). "Standard Digital News - Kenya : President Uhuru Kenyatta praises Tom Mboya at state banquet". Standard Digital News. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- Super User. "Tom Mboya - Biography". Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- - KENNETH KWAMA (1 October 2013). "Standard Digital News - Kenya : Tom Mboya- Kwame Nkrumah row jolts trade union movement". Standard Digital News. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- "TIME Magazine Cover: Tom Mboya - Mar. 7, 1960". TIME.com. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- David Goldsworthy, Tom Mboya The Man Kenya wanted to Forget, Heinnemann, 1982 at Page 34
- Bethwell A. Ogot, William Ochieng, Decolonization and Independence in Kenya: 1940 – 1963, East African Publishers, 1995, Page 58
- David Goldsworthy, Tom Mboya The Man Kenya wanted to Forget, Heinnemann, 1982 at Page 191
- "Tom Mboya — Biography". TomMboya.com. Retrieved 30 March 2008.
- Shachtman, Tom (September 2009). Airlift to America: How Barack Obama, Sr., John F. Kennedy, Tom Mboya, and 800 East African Students Changed Their World and Ours. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-57075-9.
- Center for Multiparty Democracy: Politics and Paliamenterians in Kenya 1944–2007
- Tom Mboya (1970). The challenge of nationhood. Heinemann Eduycational Books ltd. p. 39. ISBN 0-435-90081-1.
- Kiplagat, Sam (26 January 2009). "Mboya widow dies in SA after illness". Daily Nation. Nairobi: Nation Media Group. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "Kenya: Unanswered Questions". Time. New York City: Time Warner. 5 December 1969. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
Four months after the murder of Kenya's brilliant young Economic Planning Minister Tom Mboya, prison officials in Nairobi announced tersely last week that Nahashon Isaac Njenga Njoroge, the Kikuyu tribesman convicted of the shooting, had been hanged secretly "in accordance with the law." The officials refused to disclose the date or details of the execution, but it was reported in Nairobi that Njoroge had died at 3 a.m. on November 8. According to these reports, he went to his death without explaining what he had meant when he asked police after his arrest: "Why don't you go after the big man?"
- Joe Ombour, "Tombs where great men lie", Daily Nation, Weekend Magazine, 5 September 2003
- "A father's charm, absence", Boston Globe 21 September 2008
- Ombuor, Joe (4 July 2009). "Mboya's legacy still alive, 40 years later". The Standard. Nairobi, Kenya: Standard Group Limited. Retrieved 23 July 2011.[permanent dead link]
- Ombuor, Joe (4 February 2009). "Final journey of an icon, tribute to Pamela Mboya". The Standard. Nairobi, Kenya: Standard Group Limited. Archived from the original on 20 February 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- Biographical Entry at BlackPast.org
- Works by or about Tom Mboya in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- "Tom Mboya's response to the plot". Sunday Standard. 11 July 2004. Lumumba information — that could have parted him with Odinga.
- "The Facts on Grant to American Students Airlift". Archived from the original on 29 October 2004. Includes Background Memorandum prepared by Senator Kennedy's Office, August 1960.
- "T.J Mboya – A Tribute to One of Yala's proud sons". Archived from the original on 13 November 2006.
- "Kenya – Tom Mboya's fatal links with CIA". Archived from the original on 3 July 2008.
- "Tom Mboya's Mausoleum – Rusinga Island, Kenya". Archived from the original on 25 July 2008.