Toliara Province

The Toliara Province (formerly Toliary or Tuléar) is a former province of Madagascar with an area of 161,405 square kilometres (62,319 sq mi). It had a population of 2,229,550 (July, 2001). Its capital was Toliara. Near Toliara was the "spiny forest".

Map of Madagascar with Toliara highlighted
Map of Madagascar with Toliara highlighted
Coordinates (Capital): 22°45′S 44°15′E / 22.750°S 44.250°E / -22.750; 44.250Coordinates: 22°45′S 44°15′E / 22.750°S 44.250°E / -22.750; 44.250
Country Madagascar
 • Total161,405 km2 (62,319 sq mi)
 • Total2,229,550
 • Density14/km2 (36/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+3

Toliara Province bordered the following provinces – Mahajanga Province in the north, Antananarivo Province in the northeast and Fianarantsoa Province in the east. Masikoro Malagasy and Tandroy Malagasy were the chief languages.[1] Sea cucumbers were exported from the province and were an important factor in its economy.[2] The deciduous Andronovory forest was located in the province.[3]

The province was the poorest one in Madagascar. In 1993, 8 in every 10 person of the province was living below the poverty line. Despite the production of export crops the province recorded the highest rural poverty.[4][5] The average fertility rate per woman was above 5.[6] With 77 percent of its population being illiterate, Tolaira was the most illiterate province of Madagascar. Only 22 percent of the province's population had received primary level education.[7][8]

The commercially valuable softwood tree Givotia madagascariensis, found in Antananarivo and Toliara provinces was endemic to Madagascar.[9] The oil producing plant moringa drouhardii was endemic to Toliara province.[10] Deforestation was a major issue for the province.[11] In April 1971, a peasant rebellion was organised by MONIMA leader Monja Joana. The peasants refused to pay taxes and the government retaliated by dissolving MONIMA and deporting Joana.[12]

Toliara province offered poor transport and security facilities.[13][14] Potable water was accessible to only 24.9% of the province's households.[15] It was rich in terms of minerals.[16][17] Toliara province was in the news in July 2005 for its mining activity.[18]


The provinces were abolished following the results of Malagasy constitutional referendum, 2007 which led to the formation of 22 smaller areas (faritra or regions) to facilitate regional development.[19]

Administrative divisionsEdit

Toliara Province was divided into four regions of Madagascar - Androy, Anosy, Atsimo Andrefana and Menabe. These four regions became the first-level administrative divisions when the provinces were abolished in 2009. They are sub-divided into 21 districts:


  1. ^ Frawley 2003, p. 205.
  2. ^ Lovatelli & Conand 2004, p. 141.
  3. ^ Collins & Morris 1985, p. 354.
  4. ^ International Monetary Fund 1997, p. 47.
  5. ^ International Monetary Fund 2003, p. 20.
  6. ^ International Monetary Fund 1997, p. 52.
  7. ^ International Monetary Fund 1997, p. 53.
  8. ^ World Bank 2002, p. 50.
  9. ^ Timbers 2, p. 364.
  10. ^ van der Vossen & Mkamilo 2007, p. 118.
  11. ^ Cook 2010, p. 84.
  12. ^ Political Chronology of Africa 2003, p. 261.
  13. ^ International Monetary Fund 2003, p. 29.
  14. ^ International Monetary Fund 2003, p. 32.
  15. ^ International Monetary Fund 2003, p. 39.
  16. ^ List of minerals
  17. ^ Milisenda & Henn 1996, pp. 177–178.
  18. ^ McKay, David (19 July 2005). "Africa's new mining province". Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  19. ^ "Initial result shows "Yes" to revision of constitution in Madagascar". People's Daily Online. 7 April 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2014.