Tito Livio Burattini

Tito Livio Burattini (Polish: Tytus Liwiusz Burattini, 8 March 1617 – 17 November 1681) was an inventor, architect, Egyptologist, scientist, instrument-maker, traveller, engineer, and nobleman, who spent his working life in Poland and Lithuania.[1][2][3] He was born in Agordo, Italy, and studied in Padua and Venice. In 1639, he explored the Great Pyramid of Giza with English mathematician John Greaves;[3][4] both Burattini and Sir Isaac Newton used measurements made by Greaves in an attempt to accurately determine the circumference of the earth.[citation needed]

Title page of Misura universale
Burattini traveled worldwide, measured various structures, and designed machines like this "Dragon Volant" (lit. "Flying Dragon").

For Germany in 1641, the court of King Ladislaus IV invited him to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In Warsaw, Burattini built a model aircraft with four fixed glider wings in 1647.[2] Described as "four pairs of wings attached to an elaborate 'dragon'", it was said to have successfully lifted a cat in 1648 but not Burattini himself.[5] According to Clive Hart's The Prehistory of Flight, he promised that "only the most minor injuries" would result from landing the craft.[6]

He later developed an early system of measurement based on time, similar to today's International System of Units; he published it in his book Misura universale (lit. "universal measure") in 1675 at Vilnius.[4] His system includes the metro cattolico (lit. "catholic [i.e. universal] metre"), a unit of length equivalent to the length of a free seconds pendulum; it differs from the modern metre by half a centimetre.[7][8] He is considered the first to recommend the name metre for a unit of length.[8][9][10][11][12][13][14]

Along with two others he met at Kraków, Burattini "performed optical experiments and contributed to the discovery of irregularities on the surface of Venus, comparable to those on the Moon".[15] He made lenses for microscopes and telescopes, and gave some of them to Cardinal Leopoldo de' Medici.[15] He is also credited with building a calculating machine, which he donated to Grand Duke Ferdinando II, that borrows from both a Blaise Pascal machine and Napier's rods.[16] He died in Kraków, aged 64.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Frysinger, James R. "SI Background". SI Guide. Archived from the original on 2006-10-10. Retrieved 2009-05-24.
  2. ^ a b Needham, Joseph (1965). Science and Civilisation in China. Vol. IV (part 2). p. 591. ISBN 978-0-521-05803-2.
  3. ^ a b Shalev, Zur (2005). "The Travel Notebooks of John Greaves". In Hamilton, Alastair; van den Boogert, Maurits H; Westerweel, Bart (eds.). The Republic of Letters and the Levant. Brill Publishers. p. 94. ISBN 978-90-04-14761-4.
  4. ^ a b Quarrie, Paul (2006). "The Scientific Library of the Earls of Macclesfield". Notes and Records of the Royal Society. 60: 5–24. doi:10.1098/rsnr.2005.0124. ISSN 0035-9149.
  5. ^ Harrison, James Pinckney (2000). Mastering the Sky. Da Capo Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-885119-68-1.
  6. ^ Qtd. in O'Conner, Patricia T. (1985-11-17). "In Short: Nonfiction; Man Was Meant to Fly, But Not at First". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-05-24.
  7. ^ Agnoli, Paolo; D'Agostini, Giulio (2005-01-25). "Why does the meter beat the second?". arXiv:physics/0412078.
  8. ^ a b Lucendo, Jorge (23 April 2020). Centuries of Inventions: Encyclopedia and History of Inventions. Jorge Lucendo. p. 246. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  9. ^ "Tito Livio Burattini - Biography, History and Inventions". History Computer. 4 January 2021. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  10. ^ Camerini, Valentina (1 December 2020). 365 Real-Life Superheroes. Black Inc. p. 292. ISBN 978-1-74382-138-1.
  11. ^ "Appendix B: Tito Livio Burattini's catholic meter". roma1.infn.it. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  12. ^ "Science. 1791, l'adoption révolutionnaire du mètre". humanite.fr (in French). 25 March 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  13. ^ "The meter, an ingenious intuition from belluno | Italiani Come Noi". italianicomenoi.it. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  14. ^ Holtebekk, Trygve (30 November 2020). "Meter". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  15. ^ a b "Tito Livio Burattini". Institute and Museum of the History of Science - Multimedia Catalogue - Biographies. Retrieved 2009-05-24.
  16. ^ "Tito Livio Burattini [attr.], Calculating machine". Institute and Museum of the History of Science - The Medici and Science. Retrieved 2009-05-24.

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