The Tingidae are a family of very small (2–10 mm (0.08–0.39 in)) insects in the order Hemiptera that are commonly referred to as lace bugs. This group is distributed worldwide with about 2,000 described species.

Temporal range: Early Cretaceous–Present
Tanybyrsa cumberi
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Suborder: Heteroptera
Infraorder: Cimicomorpha
Superfamily: Miroidea
Family: Tingidae
Laporte, 1832

They are called lace bugs because the pronotum and fore wings of the adult have a delicate and intricate network of divided areas that resemble lace. Their body appearance is flattened dorsoventrally and they can be broadly oval or slender. Often, the head is concealed under the hood-like pronotum.

Lace bugs are usually host-specific and can be very destructive to plants. Most feed on the undersides of leaves by piercing the epidermis and sucking the sap. The then empty cells give the leaves a bronzed or silvery appearance. Each individual usually completes its entire lifecycle on the same plant, if not the same part of the plant. Most species have one to two generations per year, but some species have multiple generations. Most overwinter as adults, but some species overwinter as eggs or nymphs. This group has incomplete metamorphosis in that the immature stages resemble the adults, except that the immatures are smaller and do not have wings. However, wing pads appear in the second and third instars and increase in size as the nymph matures. Depending on the species, lace bugs have four or five instars. Lace bugs sometimes fall out of trees, land on people, and bite, which, although painful, is a minor nuisance. No medical treatment is necessary.[1] There are reports in Europe, e.g., Italy,[2] France[3] and Romania,[4] of Corythucha ciliata biting humans and some people have painful reactions, e.g., dermatosis.

Phylogeny Edit

The phylogenetic relationships of the Miroidea are not well established, with various authors treating the families, and subfamilies, and tribes differently.[5] The phylogeny here follows that of Drake and Ruhoff 1965.[6] Members have been found in the fossil record from the Early Cretaceous onwards, with the oldest being Sinaldocader from the Early Cretaceous Zaza Formation of Buryatia, Russia.[7][8]

Gallery Edit

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ "Minute Pirate Bug | Nebraska Extension in Lancaster County".
  2. ^ DUTTO, M.; BERTERO, M. (2013). "Dermatosis caused by Corythuca ciliata (Say, 1932) (Heteroptera, Tingidae). Diagnostic and clinical aspects of an unrecognized pseudoparasitosis". Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene. 54 (1): 57–59. ISSN 1121-2233. PMC 4718364. PMID 24397008.
  3. ^ Izri, Arezki; Andriantsoanirina, Valérie; Chosidow, Olivier; Durand, Rémy (2015-08-01). "Dermatosis Caused by Blood-Sucking Corythucha Ciliata". JAMA Dermatology. 151 (8): 909–910. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.0577. ISSN 2168-6068. PMID 25970727.
  4. ^ Ciceoi, Roxana; Radulovici, Adriana. "Facultative blood-sucking lace bugs, Corythucha sp., in Romania". Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  5. ^ A. Nel, A. Waller & G. de Ploëg (2004). "The oldest fossil Tingidae from the Lowermost Eocene amber of the Paris Basin (Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha: Tongoidea)" (PDF). Geologica Acta. 2 (1): 37–43. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-09-21.
  6. ^ Drake, C.J. & Ruhoff, F.A., 1965. Lace-bugs of the world: a catalogue. (Hemiptera: Tingidae). Bulletin of the United States National Museum: 243, 1–643.
  7. ^ Golub, V. B.; Popov, Yu. A. (January 2008). "A new species of Tingidae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from the Lower Cretaceous of Transbaikalia". Paleontological Journal. 42 (1): 86–89. doi:10.1134/S0031030108010140. ISSN 0031-0301. S2CID 85730288.
  8. ^ Guilbert, Eric; Heiss, Ernst (February 2019). "New lacebugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Tingidae) from Upper Cretaceous Burmese amber". Cretaceous Research. 94: 72–79. Bibcode:2019CrRes..94...72G. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2018.10.024. S2CID 133892457.

Further reading Edit

  • Miller, L.T. 2004. Lace Bugs (Hemiptera: Tingidae). In Encyclopedia of Entomology (J.L. Capinera, editor). Vol 2. pp. 1238–1241.
  • Froeschner, R.C., 1996. Lace Bug Genera of the World, I: Introduction, Subfamily Canthacaderinae (Heteroptera: Tingidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 574.
  • Froeschner, R.C., 2001. Lace Bug Genera of the World, II: Subfamily Tinginae: tribes Litadeini and Ypsotingini (Heteroptera: Tingidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 611.
  • Drake, C.J. & Ruhoff, F.A., 1960. Lace-bug genera of the world. (Hemiptera: Tingidae). Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 112 (3431): 1–105, 9 pls.

External links Edit