According to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) cannabis tinctures (tincturea) are a type of liquid cannabis extract obtained using ethanol, water, glycerol, propylene glycol and fatty oils as extraction solvents, depending on the type of tincture (and also on the solvent used) it can have a specific mass/volume ratio or a specific therapeutic agents content.
Cannabis tinctures are used in the production of specific extracts, like nabiximols.
Cannabis tincture appeared in the United States Pharmacopoeia until 1942 (Australia 1977, UK 1970s). In the 20th century cannabis lost its appeal as a medicinal product, largely due to the development of apparently suitable alternatives, such as the hypodermic needle, water-soluble analgesics and synthetic hypnotics. A major concern of the regulatory authorities at that time was the widespread recreational use of cannabis.
The pharmacological target for cannabis, the endocannabinoid system, has been researched since its discovery in the 1980s.
The tincture is typically made by soaking the dried flowers of the female hemp plant (marijuana) in ethanol. The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids dissolve into the alcohol. Some preparations also extract some of the water-based plant products such as chlorophyll, resulting in a dark green or brown liquid. Baking or drying the cannabis to decarboxylate prior to the alcohol bath increases the amount of THC in the resulting preparation.[unreliable source?]
Methods of use edit
The tincture is ordinarily consumed orally, but may also be applied to the skin.
Cannabis indica fluid extract, American Druggists Syndicate, pre-1937
Cannabis Fluid extract bottle
See also edit
- Giuseppe Cannazza; Cinzia Citti; Jenny Wiley; Vidhi Thakkar; Omer S.M. Hasan; Jakob Manthey; Jurgen Rehm; Astrid Otto; Charlotte Probst; Julian Sauer; Jonathon Arnold; Kevin P. Hill; Judith Spahr; Charles V. Pollack; Brock Bakewell (2018). "WHO Expert Committee on Drug – Section 1: Chemistry" (PDF). www.who.int. World Health Organization. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 12, 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
- "Compilation of terms and definitions for Cannabis-derived medicinal products" (PDF). European Medicines Agency. 2021-09-22. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2023-06-14. Retrieved 2023-06-15.
- David McDonald; Rhonda Moore; Jennifer Norberry; Grant Wardlaw; Nicola Ballenden (1994), "Cannabis in context: history, laws and international treaties", Legislative options for cannabis use in Australia
- Affidavit of Dr. Lester Grinspoon, 1997
- Roger Pertwee (2006), "Cannabinoid pharmacology: the first 66 years", British Journal of Pharmacology, 147: 163–171, doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706406, PMC 1760722, PMID 16402100
- Grotenhermen, Franjo (2001). "FAQ: Why should cannabis products be heated before eating?". cannabis-med.org. Retrieved 16 October 2010.