Ala ud-Din Timurtash (died 1328; also Temürtaš or Timür-Tash, Turkish: Demirtaş Noyan) was a member of the Chupanid family who dominated politics in the final years of the Ilkhanate.

Timurtash
Viceroy of Anatolia
In office
31 July 1314 – 22 December 1327
MonarchAbu Sa'id Bahadur Khan
DeputySinaneddin Ariz
VizierJalal al-Din b. Rashid al-Din Hamadani
Preceded byIrinjin
Succeeded byAmir Muhammad of Oirats
Personal details
Bornc. 1298
DiedAugust 12, 1328(1328-08-12) (aged 29–30)
Qarafa, Cairo, Mamluk Egypt
ParentChupan

Early lifeEdit

He was born to Chupan as his second son c. 1298.[1] Timurtash was mentioned for the first time in a hunting party organized by Öljaitü in 1313 where almost all Chupanids participated. He lived with his father until 1314 in Sultaniyeh.

ViceroyaltyEdit

He was appointed to Mongol viceroyalty of Anatolia by Chupan following Keraite emir Irinjin's recall to Diyar Bakir in 1314. His deputy was Sinaneddin Ariz[2] (or Seyfeddin Razi[3]), while his vizier tasked with collection of the provincial revenues was Jalal al-Din, son of Rashid al-Din Hamadani.[2] However, when Irinjin rebelled in 1319, his lands were pillaged by Keraites, Timurtash himself fleeing to Danishmendid territory. He was reconfirmed as viceroy after the victory of Chupan.[4] However, this revolt made Timurtash unsure of his position and forced him to ally with Mamluks, even to the point of sending a letter to Sultan to accept him as a governor.[5]

His tenure was marked with suppression of vassals of Ilkhanate, namely Cilician Armenia and Anatolian beyliks. He succeeded capturing Konya in 1320 from Karamanids and marched on Leo IV in alliance with Al-Nasir Muhammad in 1321 and captured Ayas on 10 May according to Abulfeda.[5] He also sacked Christian centers of Kayseri and Erzurum, forcing inhabitants to convert to Islam.[6]

RevoltEdit

Growing rebellious every year, he declared open revolt against Abu Sa'id in December 1322 - January 1323, calling himself 'Sahib-az Zaman' (Arabic: صَاحِب ٱلزَّمَان, lit.'Master of the Era') and 'Şah-i İslam' (Emperor of Islam) minting coins with his new title Mahdi.[2][6][7] He banned alcoholic drinks and reforged an alliance with Mamluks of Egypt, forcing Chupan to march against his own son in 1324. Chupan convinced his son to surrender and executed chief qadi of Anatolia Najm al-Din Tashti and emir Surkaji as rebellion instigators. He then secured a pardon for Timurtash and even had him reinstated as viceroy of Rum.

Second tenureEdit

As soon as his reappointment, he marched on Anatolian beyliks, captured Beyşehir - capital of Eshrefids, executing their bey II Süleyman by drowning in Lake Beyşehir on 9 October 1326, annexing it to the viceroyalty. Later he marched on Dündar of Hamidoğlu who fled to Antalya, but Timurtash caught up and executed him as well. He attacked Turgutids, Germiyanids and Beylik of Tadjeddin as well. He sent his subordinate Eretna against Nasir-ud Din Ahmed of Sahib Ataids in August 1327,[2] capturing Karahisar, while bey fled to Yakup I of Germiyan. According to Faruk Sümer, he executed at least 9 Seljukid princes, possibly trying to create his own sultanate.[8]

DownfallEdit

Upon learning of his brother Demasq Kaja's execution on 24 August Timurtash ended his campaigns and returned to Kayseri, then Sivas, recalling Eretna as well. Receiving news of Chupan's execution in October, he contemplated to submit to the ilkhan, but nevertheless left for Larende on 22 December 1327 and then to Egypt, leaving Eretna as acting viceroy. He was replaced by Amir Muhammad from Oirat tribe, an uncle of Abu Sa'id.[2]

Arriving in Besni, he was accompanied by about 1000 soldiers, 300 of them being cavalry.[8] He was received by Tankiz, Mamluk viceroy in Damascus on 10 December 1328. He was received warmly by Sultan Al-Nasr Muhammad on 21 January in Cairo at first, was even offered governorship of Alexandria. He was joined by Shahinshah his cousin in February. Just days after his arrival, envoys of Abu Sa'id arrived in the capital, demanding his extradition, which was denied by the Sultan. Sultan also received letters from Ibrahim I of Karaman and Najm al-Din Ishaq (son of Dündar), who accused Timurtash's misdeeds against fellow Muslims. Timurtash's growing influence and arrogance also quickly wore out his welcome.[2] He was arrested on 19 June 1328 and secured in Lion Tower. Following month, second convoy of Ilkhanate envoys arrived, offering Mamluk renegade in Ilkhanate, Qara Sonqur (husband of Oljath) in exchange. The Sultan accepted and Timurtash was executed on 12 August 1328, his head was sent to Abu Sa'id, while his body was buried in City of the Dead, next to Faris ad-Din Aktai.[8]

FamilyEdit

Three wives of Timurtash were established:

  1. A sister of Eretna
  2. Daulat Khatun, a sister of Ahi Osman; later married to Qara Jari by Hasan Kucek in 1336
  3. Kalturmish Khatun

However, Al-Safadi adds 4 more sons to his progeny: Jamdegan, Pir Hasan, Shabdun, Tudan.[5]

In Popular MediaEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Haykiran, Kemal RAMAZAN (2009-12-01). "Anadolu'da Bir İlhanlı Valisi: Demirtaş Noyan (1314-1328" [A Governor of Ilkhans in the Anatolia: Demirtaş Noyan (1314-1328)]. Muğla Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi (23): 161–178. ISSN 1302-7824.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Melville, Charles (2009-03-12), Fleet, Kate (ed.), "Anatolia under the Mongols", The Cambridge History of Turkey (1 ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 51–101, doi:10.1017/chol9780521620932.004, ISBN 978-1-139-05596-3, retrieved 2022-02-01
  3. ^ Sümer, Faruk (1970). Anadolu'da Moğollar [Mongols in Anatolia] (in Turkish). Ankara. p. 81.
  4. ^ Melville, Charles P. "Abu Sa'id and the revolt of the amirs in 1319". L'Iran face a la domination mongole, ed. D. Aigle, Tehran, 1997, pp. 89-120.
  5. ^ a b c Uzunçarşılı, İsmail Hakkı (1967). "Emîr Çoban Soldoz ve Demirtaş". Belleten. 31 (124).
  6. ^ a b Brack, Jonathan (2019). "A Mongol Mahdi in Medieval Anatolia: Rebellion, Reform, and Divine Right in the Post-Mongol Islamic World". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 139 (3): 611–630. doi:10.7817/jameroriesoci.139.3.0611. ISSN 0003-0279.
  7. ^ Peacock, A. C. S. (2019-10-17). Islam, Literature and Society in Mongol Anatolia. Cambridge University Press. p. 249. ISBN 978-1-108-49936-1.
  8. ^ a b c Tuysuz, Şaban Cem (2018-09-30). "İlhanlı Devletinin Anadolu Genel Valisi Temürtaş'ın Siyasi, Askeri ve Sosyal Hayatı". Atatürk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi (in Turkish). 22 (3): 1649–1675. ISSN 1304-4990.
  9. ^ Killing the Shadows (2006) - IMDb, retrieved 2022-02-03
Timurtash
Born: 1298 Died: 12 August 1328
Preceded by Head of Chobanids
1322 - 1327
Succeeded by