Clutterbuck was the eldest son of Thomas Clutterbuck of Ingatestone, Essex and his wife Bridgett Exton, daughter of Sir Thomas Exton, LLD, one of the Six Clerks in Chancery. He matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford on 20 October 1713, aged 16 and was admitted at Middle Temple in 1713. He married Henrietta Cuffe Tollemache, daughter of Lord Huntingtower ion 1 May 1731.
Clutterbuck was returned as Member of Parliament for Liskeard at the 1722 British general election. He was returned again at the 1727 British general election. At the 1734 British general election he was returned again as MP for Plympton Erle He was returned again at the 1741 British general election. From 1724 to 1730 he was Chief Secretary to the Lord Carteret as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland  and was also Member of the Parliament of Ireland for Lisburn from 1725 to 1742 He was Lord of the Admiralty from 1732 to 1741, Lord of the Treasury from 1741 to 1742, and Treasurer of the navy from 1742. He was made a Privy Councillor on 24 June 1742.
Clutterbuck died on 23 November 1742 leaving a son and three daughters.
- "CLUTTERBUCK, Thomas (1697-1742), of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, Mdx". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
- Foster, Joseph. "Chocke-Colepeper in Alumni Oxonienses 1500-1714 pp. 274-303". British History Online. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
- Moody, T. W.; Martin, F. X.; Byrne, F. J., eds. (1984). Maps, Genealogies, Lists: A Companion to Irish History, Part II. A New History of Ireland. Volume IX. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 530. ISBN 0-19-821745-5.
- Ulster Historical Foundation - Biographies of Members of the Irish Parliament 1692-1800
| Chief Secretary for Ireland
| Treasurer of the Navy
|Parliament of Great Britain|
| Member of Parliament for Liskeard
With: John Lansdell 1722–27
Sir John Cope 1727–34
| Member of Parliament for Plympton Erle
With: Richard Edgcumbe 1734–1735, 1741–1742
Thomas Walker 1735–1741
The Lord Sundon 1742
The Lord Sundon
Hon. Richard Edgcumbe
|Parliament of Ireland|
Edmond Francis Stafford
| Member of Parliament for Lisburn
With: Brent Spencer 1725–36
Nicholas Price 1736–42