Theodor Anton Ippen

Theodor Anton Max Ippen (November 29, 1861 – January 31, 1935) was an Albanologist and diplomat from Austria-Hungary. Ippen belonged to the group of Albanologists who published their works on Albania through the state-financed institutes of Austria-Hungary in order to create the Albanian national consciousness which he believed would be beneficial for Dual Monarchy. Ippen supported the establishment of an independent nation-state of Albanians. He served as diplomat in Shkoder, Pljevlja, Istanbul, Jerusalem, Athens and London where he advised ambassador of Austria-Hungary during London Conference which ended with signing of the London treaty and a decision to establish the Principality of Albania reached on 29 July 1913. During the period between 1921 and 1927, he was a member of the International Danube Commission.

Theodor Anton Max Ippen
Theodor Anton Ippen
Born(1861-11-29)November 29, 1861
DiedJanuary 31, 1935(1935-01-31) (aged 73)
Alma materOriental languages and economics at the Oriental Academy in Vienna
EmployerForeign Ministry of Austria-Hungary

Early lifeEdit

Ippen was born on 29 November 1861 to a family of baptized Jews in Sezemice[clarification needed].[1]

Diplomatic careerEdit

Ippen studied the oriental languages and economics at the Oriental Academy in Vienna. He started his career of diplomat serving at the consulate of Austria-Hungary in Ottoman held Shkodër in Albania between 1884 and 1887.[2] At the end of 1887 he was appointed as Austro-Hungarian diplomat in Pljevlja (vice-consul), Istanbul (1891—1893) and Jerusalem (1893—1895), Istanbul (1895—1897), and again in Shkodër (1897—1904).[3]

In the period from 1905 to 1909 he continued his diplomatic career in Athens, Greece, and after 1909 in London, where he advised the ambassador of Austria-Hungary during the London Conference, which was intended to arbitrate between the combatants in the First Balkan War.[4][5] In 1912 Ippen prepared an ethnographic map of the Albanian-populated areas of Ottoman Empire, which was submitted by the Austro-Hungarian ambassador during the London Conference as a basis for the border negotiations.[6] After the London treaty has been signed the ambassadors of six Great Powers decided, in July 1913, to constitute a new state, Albania, as a hereditary principality.[7][8] In period between 1921 and 1927 he was a member of the International Danube Commission.[9]


Theodor Ippen in Shkodër wearing a northern Albanian costume

Ippen belonged to the group of Albanologists whose works were published through the state-financed institutes of Austria-Hungary.[10] He participated in the writing and dissemination of the first history of Albania published in the Albanian language because he insisted that creating Albanian national consciousness would be beneficial for the Dual Monarchy.[11] Ippen struggled for the establishment of an independent nation-state of Albanians.[12]

The group of Western scholars he belonged to played a significant role in the creation and dissemination of the myths of Albanian nationalism, i.e., the myth of a connection of Ali Pasha with the Islamic Bektashi Order, aimed to use Bektashism in creation of the 'Albanian identity' and an 'Albanian state'.[13] Ippen and Nopcsa openly propagated their efforts in financing activities of Albanian nationalists, for example the translation and distribution of the works authored by Sami Frasheri.[14]

In period between 1897 and 1903 he was a consul of Austria-Hungary in Scutari, then in the Ottoman Empire.[15] In October 1897 Ippen traveled to central Albania and established contacts with important beys in Elbassan and Tirana.[16] Ippen had extensively visited the Catholic clans on the Ottoman-Montenegrin border and reported their problems caused by the Ottoman and Montenegrin authorities. To improve their conditions he asked for provisions of assistance, which were granted as from 1898 to 1903 corn was regularly distributed to the clans, which in turn became pro-Austrian.[17] Ippen distributed money to Albanian families, especially to Albanians from Hoti and Grudë clans who were populated near Montenegrin border and most exposed to Montenegrin influence.[18]

It was Ippen who asserted that Skanderbeg was buried within the fortifications of Lezhë. His opinion was based on the work of Barletius who wrote that Skanderbeg was buried in the Church of St. Nicholas, without explanation if the church's building was inside or outside the castle. Ippen assumed that such notable person like Skanderbeg would have been buried in the best place of the city, in its castle. He also speculated that the Ottomans transformed this church into a mosque.[19] According to Ippen's estimations around 20,000 Albanians fled parts of Ottoman Empire captured by Serbia during Serbian-Ottoman War (1877-1878).[20]

Ippen was one of the authors whose texts were published in the periodical Albania published by Faik Konitza in period 1897—1910.[21] Konitza assured Ippen that he and his friends believed that Albania should be in political and military union with Austria.[22]



  • Novibazar und Kossovo (das alte Rascien). Eine studie ... (in German), Vienna: A. Hölder, 1892, OCLC 14192433
  • Rascien, Knjižnica Odsjeka za povijest, 1894
  • Stare crkvene ruševine u Albaniji [Old church ruins in Albania] (in Bosnian), Sarajevo, Austria-Hungary: Zemaljska štamparija, 1899
  • Stari spomenici u Albaniji [Old monuments in Albania] (in Bosnian), Sarajevo, Austria-Hungary: Zemaljska štamparija, 1900
  • Stare crkve i crkvene ruševine u Albaniji [Old churches and church ruins in Albania] (in Bosnian), Sarajevo, Austria-Hungary: Zemaljska štamparija, 1901
  • Das religiöse Protektorat Österreich-Ungarns in der Türkei, in: Die Kultur III, Wien 1901/1902
  • Historički gradovi u Albaniji [Historical cities in Albania] (in Bosnian), Sarajevo, Austria-Hungary: Zemaljska štamparija, 1902
  • Pečatnik jedne već nestale biskupine u Albaniji (in Bosnian), Sarajevo?, Austria-Hungary: Zemaljska štamparija, c. 1903
  • Skutari und die nordalbanische Küstenebene (in German), Sarajevo: D.A. Kajon, 1907, OCLC 25198388
  • Die Gebirge des nordwestlichen Albaniens (in German), Wien: Lechner, 1908, OCLC 65534766
  • Illyrisch-albanische forschungen (in German), München, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, 1916, OCLC 35691167 - coauthored with Ludwig Thallóczy; Konstantin Jireček; Milan Šufflay; Ernst C Sedlmayr; Josef Ivanič; Imre Karácson; Béla Péch; Karl Thopia
  • Gjerak Karaiskaj; Ardian Klosi, eds. (2002), Shqipëria e vjetër : studime gjeografike, etnografike, historike, nga ish-konsulli i përgjithshëm i monarkisë austro-hungareze në Shkodër (in Albanian), Tirana: K&B, ISBN 9789992777763, OCLC 819321262
  • Fejzi Isa Domni, ed. (2003), Coptimi i Shqipnise : Konferencas e pare e Londonit 1912-1913, Konferenca e dyte e Londonit, 1915-1916, Zaptimi i Shqipnise 7 Prille 1939 = The dismemberment of the Albanian nation (in Albanian), Massapequa Park: F. Domni, OCLC 55222354


Published in 'Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja u Bosni i Hercegovini', within series 'Zbirka povjesti' by Zemaljska štamparija [State's printing house] in Sarajevo, Austria-Hungary:

Published in 'Die Kultur', Vienna, Austria-Hungary:

  • Das religiöse Protectorat Österreich-Ungarns in der Türkei, Volume 3 (1901/1902), 298-310

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Ethnologia Balkanica. Prof. M. Drinov Academic Publishing House. 1998. Theodor Anton Ippen (1861-1935) Ippen was born in 1861 in Sezemitz (Bohemia) and studied oriental languages and economics at the Oriental Academy in Vienna. In 1884 he began working as an employee at the consulate-general in
  2. ^ Elsie, Robert (2012). A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History. London: I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-780764-31-3.
  3. ^ Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon und biographische Dokumentation. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 2003–2011. p. 40. ISBN 978-3-7001-3213-4.
  4. ^ Faik Konica (2000). Destani, Bejtullah D. (ed.). Faik Konitza: selected correspondence. Centre for Albanian Studies. p. 177. ISBN 9781873928189. Theodor A. Ippen (1861-1935) Austrian diplomat, based in Shkoder, was adviser to Austro-Hungarian Ambassador to London during the Ambassador's Conference in London in 1912-1913.
  5. ^ Elsie, Robert (2010) [2004], Historical Dictionary Of Albania (PDF) (2 ed.), Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, p. 200, ISBN 9781282521926, OCLC 816372706
  6. ^ William D. Godsey, Jr. ""SEINE SPOREN IM KOSOVO VERDIENEN..." Ein Altösterreicher als Albanienkenner: Alfred Ritter Rappaport v. Arbengau (1868-1946)". Retrieved January 4, 2013. 1912 erstellte er eine ethnographische Karte der albanischen Gebiete der Türkei, die der nach London zur Botschafterkonferenz u.a. zur Regelung der Frage der albanischen Unabhängigkeit entsandten Delegation als Grundlage dienen sollte. Im Übrigen war keine der diplomatischen Vertretungen in London so gut und so genau über die nationalen Verhältnisse Albaniens informiert wie die österreichisch-ungarische. External link in |publisher= (help)
  7. ^ Zolo, Danilo (2002), Invoking humanity: war, law, and global order, London ; New York: Continuum, pp. 179, 180, ISBN 978-0-8264-5655-7, OCLC 47844508, With the Peace of London, the Great European powers, in the redistributing the land taken from Turks among the Balkan states, decided to create a new state, Albania.
  8. ^ Llewellyn Smith, Sir Michael (2008) [2006], Kitromilides, Paschalis (ed.), Eleftherios Venizelos : the trials of statesmanship, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, p. 150, ISBN 978-0-7486-3364-7, In July 1913 the Powers signed a protocol establishing Albania as an 'autonomous, sovereign, hereditary principality' under their guarantee. They set up a commission to establish the frontiers of the new state.
  9. ^ Elsie, Robert (2012). A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History. I.B. Tauris. p. 214. ISBN 9781780764313. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  10. ^ Blumi, Isa (2007), Seeing Beyond the River Drin, Sarajevo, Ottoman Albanians and Imperial Rivalry in the Balkans after 1878 (PDF), Austria: Kakanien revisited, p. 3, At the center of this Sarajevo-based policy were highly regarded Albanologists such as Theodor Ippen (b. 1861), Norbert Jokl (1877-1942) and Franz Nopcsa (1877-1933) who all published influential studies on Albanian language, geography, archeology and history through state-funded institutes in Budapest, Sarajevo and Vienna.
  11. ^ Clayer, Nathalie (2007), Aux origines du nationalisme albanais: la naissance d'une nation majoritairement musulmane on Europe, Karthala, p. 416, ISBN 9782845868168, retrieved January 19, 2011, Ce sont aussi les fonctionnaires austro-hongrois qui furent à l'origine du premier livre sur l'histoire de l'Albanie en albanais“. Dès le mois de mai 1897, le consul Ippen insistait auprès du ministre des Affaires étrangères de la Double Monarchie sur les avantages que procurerait, pour l'éveil de la conscience nationale albanaise et donc pour l' action autrichienne en Albanie, l'écriture et la diffusion d'une histoire de l'Albanie.
  12. ^ Ethnologia Balkanica. Prof. M. Drinov Academic Publishing House. 1998. p. 215. he promoted the Albanian educational system and supported the establishment of an independent Albanian state
  13. ^ Schwandner-Sievers, Stephanie; Bernd Jürgen Fischer; Roderick Bailey; Isa Blumi; Nathalie Clayer; Ger Dujizings; Denisa Costovicova; Annie Lafontaine; Fatos Lubonja; Nicola Mai; Noel Malcolm; Piro Misha; Mariella Pandolfi; Gilles de Rapper; Fabian Schmidt; George Shopflin; Elias G. Skoulidas; Alex Standish; Galia Vatchinova (2002), Albanian identities: myth and history, USA: Indiana University Press, p. 131, ISBN 0-253-34189-2, We will consider two groups of actors in the 'creation' and diffusion of the myths: Bektashi leaders, and Westerners who came into contact with them (above all Ippen, Degrand, Brailsford, F.W Hasluck, and later Birge).... So clearly the aim was to present Bektashism as a (or the) potential power in the creation of the 'Albanian identity' and an 'Albanian state'
  14. ^ Blumi, Isa (2007), Seeing Beyond the River Drin, Sarajevo, Ottoman Albanians and Imperial Rivalry in the Balkans after 1878 (PDF), Austria: Kakanien revisited, p. 6, s. Ippen and Nopcsa openly advocated funding efforts to solidify the cultural ambitions of nationalist leaders, resulting, for instance, in the translation into German and distribution of Sami Frashëri’s works
  15. ^ Slijepčević, Đoko (1983) [1974], Srpsko-arbanaški odnosi kroz vekove sa posebnim osvrtom na novije vreme (in Serbian) (2 ed.), Chimelstir: Ostrog, p. 209, OCLC 247155496
  16. ^ Skendi, Stavro (1967). The Albanian national awakening, 1878-1912. Princeton University Press. p. 270. ISBN 9780691650029. In October 1897 Ippen undertook a trip in central Albania which brought him in contact with influential beys of Tirana and Elbasan.
  17. ^ Skendi, Stavro (1967). The Albanian national awakening, 1878-1912. Princeton University Press. p. 270. ISBN 9780691650029. Ippen paid a visit to the Catholic mountaineers on the Turkish-Monenegrin border — Kastrat, Hot, Grude, Klement, and Shkrel. He learned about their grievances against the Turkish government and Montenegro's efforts to make use of them. He suggested to his government that immediate help was needed to improve their situation. From 1898 to 1903 Austria distributed corn to the mountaineers, thus winning them to her side
  18. ^ Kazimirović, Vasa; Filimonović, Slobodan (1990). Nikola Pašić i njegovo doba, 1845-1926. 2. Nova Evropa. p. 231. ISBN 9788676530892.
  19. ^ Deuxième Conférence des études albanologiques. Deuxième Conférence des études albanologiques: à l'occasion du 5e centenaire de la mort de Georges Kastriote-Skanderbeg. Tirana: Université d'état de Tirana, Institut d'histoire et de linguistique. 1969. p. 298. Retrieved December 31, 2012. Celui qui a voulu prouver pourquoi la sépulture du héros devait être cherchée à l'intérieur du mur de ceinture du château fort a été Th. Ippen. On sait de l'histoire de Barletius, soutient Ippen, que Skanderbeg a été enseveli dans l'église de Barletius Saint-Nicolas, mais on n'y explique pas plus en détail où se trouvait ce temple, dans la ville ou bien dans le château fort. D'autre part, Ippen exprime l'opinion qu'un haute personnalité, comme l'était Skanderbeg, doit avoir été inhumé dans la meilleure place de la ville, c'est-à-dire dans son château. De même, en partant du fait que ce château doit avoir eu en ces temps-là un temple chrétien, Ippen ajoute qu'il ne serait pas superflu de conjecturer que l'église de Saint-Nicolas, c'est-à-dire le lieu de sépulture de Skanderbeg, doive se trouver dans le château fort de Lesh, et précisément dans les ruines de sa mosquée qui peut avoir été construite sur les fondations de quelque église préturque.
  20. ^ Isaković, Antonije (1990). Kosovsko-metohijski zbornik. Belgrade: Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti. ISBN 9788670251052. (Ипен наводи да je двадесет хшьада арбанашких исел>еника-мухацира отишло из ослобог)ених Kpajena Cpônje у рату са Турском 1877/78. године
  21. ^ "Qui était Faik Konica?". 2009. Retrieved January 1, 2013. Les collaborateurs et le contenu de la revue “Albania”. La collection d’Albania est réunie en 12 volumes qui font 2500 pages. Ses collaborateurs étaient des écrivains et intellectuels réputés de son temps en Europe comme Guillaume Apollinaire, Emile Legrand, Jan Urban Jarnik, Holger Pedersen, Albert Thumb, Théodore Ippen, etc.
  22. ^ Tarifa, Fatos (1985). Drejt pavarësisë: çështja e çlirimit kombëtar në mendimin politik-shoqëror rilindës 1900-1912 (in Albanian). Tirana: Shtëpia Botuese "8 Nëntori". p. 102. "Është opinioni im dhe i miqve të mi" i shkruante Konica më 1897 konsullit austriak në Shkodër Teodor Ippen — se «do të ishte fat nëse Shqipëria do të arrinte të gëzojë një autonomi administrative me një bashkim politik dhe ushtarak me Austrinë»

Further readingEdit

  • Wernicke, Anneliese (1967), Theodor Anton Ippen, Albanische Forschungen, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, OCLC 250667285

External linksEdit