The Bacchae (/ˈbæk/; Greek: Βάκχαι, Bakkhai; also known as The Bacchantes /ˈbækənts, bəˈkænts, -ˈkɑːnts/) is an ancient Greek tragedy, written by the Athenian playwright Euripides during his final years in Macedonia, at the court of Archelaus I of Macedon. It premiered posthumously at the Theatre of Dionysus in 405 BC as part of a tetralogy that also included Iphigeneia at Aulis and Alcmaeon in Corinth, and which Euripides' son or nephew is assumed to have directed.[1] It won first prize in the City Dionysia festival competition.

The Bacchae
Pentheus being torn apart by Agave and Ino, Attic red-figure vase painting
Written byEuripides
ChorusBacchae, female followers of Dionysus
Second Messenger
Date premiered405 BC
Place premieredAthens
Original languageAncient Greek

The tragedy is based on the Greek myth of King Pentheus of Thebes and his mother Agave, and their punishment by the god Dionysus (who is Pentheus's cousin). The god Dionysus appears at the beginning of the play and proclaims that he has arrived in Thebes to avenge the slander, which has been repeated by his aunts, that he is not the son of Zeus. In response, he intends to introduce Dionysian rites into the city, and he intends to demonstrate to the king, Pentheus, and to Thebes that he was indeed born a god.[2] At the end of the play, Pentheus is torn apart by the women of Thebes and his mother Agave bears his head on a thyrsus to her father Cadmus.[3][4]

The Bacchae is considered to be not only one of Euripides's greatest tragedies, but also one of the greatest ever written, modern or ancient.[5] The Bacchae is distinctive in that the chorus is integrated into the plot and the god is not a distant presence but a character in the play, indeed, the protagonist.[6]

Various interpretations edit

American student production, 2012

The Bacchae has been the subject of widely varying interpretations regarding what the play as a whole means, or even indeed whether there is a “moral” to the story.

The extraordinary beauty and passion of the poetic choral descriptions indicate that the author certainly knew what attracted those who followed Dionysus. The vivid gruesomeness of the punishment of Pentheus suggests that he could also understand those who were troubled by religion.[7]

At one time the interpretation that prevailed was that the play was an expression of Euripides’ religious devotion, as though after a life of being critical of the Greek gods and their followers, the author finally repented of his cynicism, and wrote a play that honors Dionysus and that carries a dire warning to nonbelievers.[2]

Then, at the end of the 19th century the opposite idea began to take hold: it was thought that Euripides was doing with The Bacchae what he had always done, pointing out the inadequacy of the Greek gods and religions.[8]

Background edit

The Dionysus in Euripides' tale is a young god, angry that his mortal family, the royal house of Cadmus, has denied him a place of honor as a deity. His mortal mother, Semele, was a mistress of Zeus; and while pregnant, was tricked by a jealous Hera to request Zeus to come to her in his true form. Being only a mortal, she was struck down by Zeus' thunderbolts while in his presence and was killed. Zeus then saved Dionysus, who was in Semele's womb, by sewing him into a cavity in his thigh. When Semele died, her sisters said it was Zeus' will and accused her of lying; they also accused their father, Cadmus, of claiming Semele was pregnant by Zeus to cover up an affair with a mortal man. Most of Semele's family refused to believe Dionysus was the son of Zeus, and the young god was spurned by his household. He traveled throughout Asia and other foreign lands, gathering a cult of female worshipers, the Maenads. At the start of the play, Dionysus returns to Thebes, disguised as a stranger, to take revenge on the house of Cadmus. He has also driven the women of Thebes, including his aunts, into an ecstatic frenzy, sending them dancing and hunting on Mount Cithaeron, much to the horror of the young Pentheus, king of Thebes who also is Dionysus' cousin. Complicating matters, Pentheus has declared a ban on the worship of Dionysus throughout Thebes.[9]

Plot edit

The play begins before the palace at Thebes, with Dionysus telling the story of his birth and his reasons for visiting the city. Dionysus explains he is the son of a mortal woman, Semele, and a god, Zeus. Some in Thebes, he notes, do not believe this story. In fact, Semele's sisters—Autonoe, Agave, and Ino—claim it is a lie intended to cover up the fact that Semele became pregnant by some mortal. Dionysus reveals that he has driven the women of the city mad, including his three aunts, and has led them into the mountains to observe his ritual festivities. He has disguised himself as a mortal for the time being, but he plans to vindicate his mother by appearing before all of Thebes as a god, the son of Zeus, and establishing his permanent cult of followers.[4]

Dionysus exits to the mountains, and the chorus (composed of the titular Bacchae) enters. They perform a choral ode in praise of Dionysus. Then Tiresias, the blind and elderly seer, appears. He calls for Cadmus, the founder and former king of Thebes. The two old men start out to join the revelry in the mountains when Cadmus’ petulant young grandson Pentheus, the current king, enters. Disgusted to find the two old men in festival dress, he scolds them and orders his soldiers to arrest anyone engaging in Dionysian worship, including the mysterious "foreigner" who has introduced this worship. Pentheus intends to have him stoned to death.[10]

The guards soon return with Dionysus himself in tow. Pentheus questions him, both skeptical of and fascinated by the Dionysian rites. Dionysus's answers are cryptic. Infuriated, Pentheus has Dionysus taken away and chained to an angry bull in the palace stable, but the god shows his power. He breaks free and razes the palace with an earthquake and fire. Dionysus and Pentheus are once again at odds when a herdsman arrives from the top of Mount Cithaeron, where he had been herding his grazing cattle. He reports that he found women on the mountain behaving strangely: wandering the forest, suckling animals, twining snakes in their hair, and performing miraculous feats. The herdsmen and the shepherds made a plan to capture one particular celebrant, Pentheus' mother. But when they jumped out of hiding to grab her, the Bacchae became frenzied and pursued the men. The men escaped, but their cattle were not so fortunate, as the women fell upon the animals, ripping them to shreds with their bare hands. The women carried on, plundering two villages that were further down the mountain, stealing bronze, iron and even babies. When villagers attempted to fight back, the women drove them off using only their ceremonial staffs of fennel. They then returned to the mountain top and washed up, as snakes licked them clean.[11]

Roman fresco from Pompeii depicting Pentheus being torn by maenads

Dionysus, still in disguise, persuades Pentheus to forgo his plan to defeat and massacre the women with an armed force. He says it would be better first to spy on them, while disguised as a female Maenad to avoid detection.[12] Dressing Pentheus in this fashion, giving him a thyrsus and fawn skins, Dionysus leads him out of the house. At this point, Pentheus seems already crazed by the god's power, as he thinks he sees two suns in the sky, and believes he now has the strength to rip up mountains with his bare hands. He has also begun to see through Dionysus' mortal disguise, perceiving horns coming out of the god's head. They exit to Cithaeron.

A messenger arrives to report that once the party reached Mount Cithaeron, Pentheus wanted to climb an evergreen tree to get a better view and the stranger used divine power to bend down the tall tree and place the king in its highest branches. Then Dionysus, revealing himself, called out to his followers and pointed out the man in the tree. This drove the Maenads wild. Led by Agave, his mother, they forced the trapped Pentheus down from the tree top, ripped off his limbs and his head, and tore his body into pieces.

After the messenger has relayed this news, Agave arrives, carrying her son's bloodied head. In her god-maddened state, she believes it is the head of a mountain lion. She proudly displays it to her father, Cadmus, and is confused when he does not delight in her trophy, but is horrified by it. Agave then calls out for Pentheus to come marvel at her feat, and nail the head above her door so she can show it to all of Thebes. But now the madness begins to wane, and Cadmus forces her to recognize that she has destroyed her own son. As the play ends, the corpse of Pentheus is reassembled as well as is possible, and the royal family is devastated and destroyed. Agave and her sisters are sent into exile, and Dionysus decrees that Cadmus and his wife Harmonia will be turned into snakes and leads a barbarian horde to plunder the cities of Hellas.[13]

Modern productions edit

Dramatic versions edit

Ramona Reeves and Lynn Odell in director Brad Mays' stage production of Euripides' The Bacchae, 1997, Los Angeles
Mia Perovetz plays Dionysos in the MacMillan Films staging of The Bacchae as part of their Greek Drama educational series.
  • Luigi Lo Cascio's multimedia adaptation La Caccia (The Hunt) won the Biglietto d' Oro del Teatro prize in 2008. The free adaptation combines live theater with animations by Nicola Console and Desideria Rayner's video projections. A revised 2009 version went on tour with original music by Andrea Rocca.
  • In 2008, James Thomas directed Peter Arnott's faithful and audience-friendly translation of The Bacchae as part of MacMillan Films series on Greek drama. The production featured Mia Perovetz as Dionysus, a traditional Greek chorus with Morgan Marcum as the chorus leader and the dance choreography of Angessa Hughmanick.
  • In 2017, Madeleine George's adaptation Hurricane Diane premiered at Two River Theater. Hurricane Diane places the narrative in Monmouth, New Jersey, where Dionysus becomes Diane, a butch landscaper who schemes to install permaculture gardens in suburban backyards, and convince four women to start a "mystery cult" in order to regain her powers and fight climate change.[26][27]
  • In 2020, the Classics department of King's College London performed a version of The Bacchae in its original ancient Greek in combination with Aristophanes' The Frogs, created by David Bullen and entitled Dionysus in the Underworld for their annual Greek play,[28] which is the only production of Greek drama in the UK staged annually in the original language.[29]
  • In 2023, Sleepwalk immersive debuted immersive production 'Bacchanalia' based upon the play in the crypt of St Peters Church, Bethnal Green.

Operatic versions edit

Musical versions edit

Film versions edit

Religious significance edit

Greek theater was a form of religious expression and worship.[36] The Bacchae re-enacts how Dionysus had come to be a god. In ancient Greek theatre, "role-playing is a well-known feature of ritual liminality."[37]

To an actor, religious worship is a direct experience. The actor would have experienced a "stepping out" of himself to become a representation of Dionysus. As a spectator, the experience comes from what is acted onstage, arousing emotions that sympathize with Dionysus. Collectively, through Dionysiac acting, there is a reintegration of the "other" into the "self", that is to say that Dionysus has been accepted and will be worshipped by the Greek people.[37]

Comparative analysis edit

Jesus's interrogation by Pontius Pilate from The Bible has been compared to Dionysus' interrogation by King Pentheus regarding his claim to divinity.[38]

Dramatic structure edit

In the play's climactic plot construction, Dionysus the protagonist instigates the unfolding action by simultaneously emulating the play's author, costume designer, choreographer and artistic director.[39] Helene P. Foley, writing of the importance of Dionysus as the central character and his effect on the play's structure, observes: "The poet uses the ritual crisis to explore simultaneously god, man, society, and his own tragic art. In this protodrama Dionysus, the god of the theatre, stage-directs the play."[40]

At the play's start, Dionysus' exposition highlights the play's central conflict: the invasion of Greece by an Asian religion.[41] [dubious ]

Criticism edit

Until the late 19th century, the play's themes were considered too gruesome to be studied and appreciated. It was Nietzsche's "Birth of Tragedy" in 1872 that re-posed the question of Dionysus's relation with the theatre and awakened interest in The Bacchae. In the 20th century, performances became quite fashionable—particularly in opera, due in part to the dramatic choruses found throughout the story.[42] In 1948, R.P. Winnington-Ingram said of Euripides' handling of the play: "On its poetical and dramatic beauties, he writes with charm and insight; on more complex themes, he shows equal mastery."[43] Recent criticism has been provided by P.E. Easterling, et al. in The Cambridge Companion to Greek Tragedy.

Influences edit

The Bacchae had an enormous impact on ancient literature, and its influence can be seen in numerous Greek and Roman authors.[44] It seems to have been one of Horace's favorite tragedies.[45] Beyond antiquity, dramatists and filmmakers of all ages have been greatly impacted by it. The tragedy's influence can be seen in the writings of Henrik Ibsen,[46] as well as Thomas Mann's 1912 novella Death in Venice[47] and Oliver Stone's 2004 film Alexander.[48] The Renaissance Venetian painter Titian may have illustrated the arrest of Bacchus in his painting "Il Bravo" in Vienna's Kunsthistorisches Museum.[49]

In popular culture edit

  • Donna Tartt's 1992 novel The Secret History is about six students of classical languages who go in search of the rapture described by Euripides in The Bacchae.
  • J. M. Tolcher's 2023 autobiography, Poof, makes direct reference to The Bacchae: Dionysus and Pentheus return as characters, and the book addresses many of the same themes such as femininity, intoxication, and liberation from oppression in a contemporary Australian setting.[50][51]

Translations edit

  • Theodore Alois Buckley, 1850: prose[52]
  • Henry Hart Milman, 1865: verse
  • Edward P. Coleridge, 1891: prose[53]
  • Gilbert Murray, 1911: verse[54]
  • Arthur S. Way, 1912: verse
  • D. W. Lucas, 1930: prose
  • Moses Hadas and John McLean, 1936: prose[55]
  • Philip Vellacott, 1954: prose and verse
  • F. L. Lucas, 1954: verse[56]
  • Henry Birkhead, 1957: verse
  • William Arrowsmith, 1958: verse[57]
  • Paul Roche, 1969: verse
  • Geoffrey Kirk, 1970: prose and verse
  • Wole Soyinka, 1973[58]
  • Philip Vellacott, 1973[59]
  • Robert Bagg, 1978: verse (as The Bakkhai)[60]
  • Michael Cacoyannis, 1982: verse[61]
  • Matt Neuberg, 1988: verse[62]
  • Arthur Evans, 1988, prose and verse, as The God of Ecstasy (St. Martin's Press)
  • Derek Mahon, 1991 [63]
  • Nicholas Rudall, 1996
  • Richard Seaford, 1996: prose[64]
  • Frederic Raphael and Kenneth McLeish, 1998[65]
  • Daniel Mark Epstein, 1998: verse[66]
  • Stephen J. Esposito, 1998[67]
  • Paul Woodruff, 1999: verse
  • James Morwood, 1999[68]
  • Reginald Gibbons, 2000: verse ISBN 0-19-512598-3
  • David Franklin, 2000: prose[69][70]
  • David Kovacs, 2003[71]
  • Ian C. Johnston, 2003: verse[72]
  • Colin Teevan, 2003: verse (as "Bacchai")
  • George Theodoridis, 2005: prose[73]
  • Michael Valerie, 2005: verse[74]
  • Michael Scanlan, 2006: verse (La Salle Academy: Providence, RI)
  • Graham Kirby, 2009: verse (The Scoop)
  • Che Walker, 2013: play with songs as The Lightning Child
  • Robin Robertson, 2014: verse
  • Anne Carson, 2015: verse (as The Bakkhai)
  • David Stuttard, 2016: verse[75]
  • Emily Wilson, 2016: verse[76]
  • Emma Pauly, 2019: prose and verse[77]
  • Brian Vinero, 2020: rhymed verse[78]

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Rehm (1992, 23).
  2. ^ a b Murray Gilbert. Euripides and His Age. Oxford University Press. 1965. ISBN 0-313-20989-8
  3. ^ Corrigan, Robert W. editor. Classical Tragedy, Greek and Roman; Eight Plays in Authoritative Modern Translations. Euripides. Bagg, Robert, translator. The Bakkhai. Applause Theatre Book Publishers. 1990. ISBN 1-55783-046-0
  4. ^ a b Euripides. Vellacott, Philip, translator. The Bacchae and Other Plays. Penguin Books. 1954. ISBN 0-14-044044-5. p. 193.
  5. ^ Euripides. Slavitt, David R., editor. Bovie, Palmer, editor. Epstein, Daniel Mark, translator. Euripides, 1. University of Pennsylvania Press. 1998. ISBN 0-8122-1626-1
  6. ^ Euripides. Slavitt, David R., editor. Bovie, Palmer, editor. Epstein, Daniel Mark, translator. Euripides, 1. University of Pennsylvania Press. 1998. ISBN 0-8122-1626-1
  7. ^ Corrigan, Robert W. editor. Classical Tragedy Greek and Roman; Eight Plays in Authoritative Modern Translations. Euripides. Bagg, Robert, translator. The Bakkhai. Applause Theatre Book Publishers. 1990. ISBN 1-55783-046-0
  8. ^ Winnington-Ingram, R. P. Euripides and Dionysus, an Interpretation of the Bacchae. Bristol Classical Press. 1997. ISBN 1-85399-524-X
  9. ^ Euripides, Bacchae, 1–64
  10. ^ Euripides. Vellacott, Philip, translator. The Bacchae and Other Plays. Penguin Books. 1954. ISBN 0-14-044044-5. p. 198.
  11. ^ Euripides. Vellacott, Philip, translator. The Bacchae and Other Plays. Penguin Books. 1954. ISBN 0-14-044044-5. p. 218.
  12. ^ Euripides. Ten Plays by Euripides. Trans. Moses Hadas and John Mclean. New York: Bantam Books, 1981, p. 299
  13. ^ Euripides. Vellacott, Philip, translator. The Bacchae and Other Plays. Penguin Books. 1954. ISBN 0-14-044044-5. p. 242.
  14. ^ Orton, Joe. 1976. The Complete Plays. London: Methuen. p. 278. ISBN 0-413-34610-2.
  15. ^ Dionysus in '69 at IMDb  
  16. ^ "Performing the Bacchae" Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine, The Open University.
  17. ^ The Bacchae 2.1 Archived 2007-06-30 at the Wayback Machine on the web.
  18. ^ See: Rolandsson, Ottiliana, Pure Artistry: Ingmar Bergman, the Face as Portal and the Performance of the Soul, PhD dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2010; especially Chapter 4: "The Embodiment of Ritual and Myth as Text and as Performance."
  19. ^ "Los Angeles News and Events - LA Weekly". L.A. Weekly. Archived from the original on 22 April 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  20. ^ Weaver, Neal (9 May 2001). "Grin and Bare It". Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  21. ^ "". Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  22. ^ "The Bacchae". Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2018 – via
  23. ^ "William Shephard – IMDbPro". Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  24. ^ "Dionysos". Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  25. ^ Isherwood, Charles (5 July 2008). "A Greek God and His Groupies Are Dressed to Kill". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 February 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  26. ^ George, Madeleine (2019-01-29). "from Hurricane Diane | Madeleine George". The Brooklyn Review. Retrieved 2021-04-15.
  27. ^ "Hurricane Diane Blows People Away At Two River Theater". WBGO. Retrieved 2021-04-15.
  28. ^ "The Department of Classics announces the new Greek Play 2020". Retrieved 2020-03-02.
  29. ^ "The Greek Play | Department of Classics | King's College London". Retrieved 2020-03-02.
  30. ^ Waterhouse, John C.G. "Baccanti, Le". Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved February 28, 2011.
  31. ^ "US". Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  32. ^ "Backanterna". Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on 2015-04-09. Retrieved 2014-10-05.
  33. ^ Taylor, Kenric. "Compositions: The Music of Gustav Holst". The Gustav Holst Website. Kenric Taylor. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
  34. ^ "A Musical Remix Of Euripides' The Bacchae". The Shakespeare Globe Trust. Archived from the original on April 27, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
  35. ^ "Dr Who star Arthur Darvill has laptop stolen by burglars". 25 October 2012. Archived from the original on April 27, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
  36. ^ "Religion." Oxford University Press, 2011. Web. 25 October 2011.
  37. ^ a b Lada-Richards, Ismene. Initiating Dionysus: Ritual and Theatre in Aristophanes' Frogs. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. 159–164. Print.
  38. ^ Powell, Barry B. A Short Introduction to Classical Myth. Prentice Hall. 2001. ISBN 0-13-025839-3
  39. ^ Teevan (2001, 4)
  40. ^ Scully (1987, 321)
  41. ^ Johnston (2001)
  42. ^ Morwood (2008, x–xi)
  43. ^ Norwood (1949, 317)
  44. ^ Courtney J. P. Friesen, Reading Dionysus: Euripides' Bacchae and the Cultural Contestations of Greeks, Jews, Romans, and Christians (Tübingen 2015).
  45. ^ Philip Whaley Harsh, A Handbook of Classical Drama, p. 237, (Stanford University Press).
  46. ^ Norman Rhodes, Ibsen and the Greeks, p. 76, (Bucknell University Press)
  47. ^ "The Bacchae in "Death in Venice" Book Review 128595". Archived from the original on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  48. ^ D., Bundrick, Sheramy (22 March 2009). "Dionysian Themes and Imagery in Oliver Stone's Alexander". Helios. 36 (1): 81. Bibcode:2009Helio..36...81S. doi:10.1353/hel.0.0018. S2CID 162291908. Archived from the original on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2018.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  49. ^ Bruce D. Sutherland, 'Nine reasons why Titian's "Il Bravo" should be re-titled "The Arrest of Bacchus"', Venezia Cinquecento, 6 (1994), 35-52; an image of this painting can be seen on WikiArt.
  50. ^ Tolcher, J. M. (2023). Poof. ISBN 978-0-646-87587-3.
  51. ^ Dayton, P. (2023, August 1). "Pain and Prejudice". DNA Magazine, 283, 76–78.
  52. ^ "Euripides, Bacchae, line 1". Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  53. ^ full text Archived 2005-09-10 at the Wayback Machine
  54. ^ "Euripides. 1909–14. The Bacchæ. Vol. 8, Part 8. The Harvard Classics". Archived from the original on 9 August 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  55. ^ Moses Hadas and John McLean (trans.), Ten Plays by Euripides (New York: Dial Press, 1936).
  56. ^ Lucas, F. L., Greek Drama for Everyman (Dent 1954)
  57. ^ William Arrowsmith (trans.), The Bacchae, in David Grene and Richmond Lattimore (eds), Euripides V (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959).
  58. ^ Wole Soyinka (trans.), The Bacchae of Euripides: A Communion Rite (New York: Norton, 1973).
  59. ^ Philip Vellacott (trans.), The Bacchae and Other Plays (London: Penguin, 1973).
  60. ^ Euripides, The Bakkhai, trans. by Robert Bagg (Amherst: U of Massachusetts P, 1978).
  61. ^ Michael Cacoyannis (trans.), Euripides: The Bacchae (London: Penguin, 1982).
  62. ^ full text as PDF Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
  63. ^ Derek Mahon (trans.), The Bacchae: After Euripides (Loughcrew: Gallery Press, 1991).
  64. ^ Richard Seaford (trans.), Euripides: Bacchae (Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1996).
  65. ^ Euripides, Bacchae, trans. by Frederic Raphael and Kenneth McLeish (London: NickHern, 1998).
  66. ^ Daniel Mark Epstein (trans.), The Bacchae, in David Slavitt and Palmer Bovie (eds), Euripides 1 (Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1998).
  67. ^ The Bacchae of Euripides, trans. by Stephen J. Esposito (Newburyport: FocusPublishing, 1998).
  68. ^ James Morwood (trans.), Euripides: Iphigenia among the Taurians, Bacchae, Iphigeniaat Aulis, Rhesus (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), ISBN 0-19-283875-X.
  69. ^ David Franklin (trans.), Euripides: Bacchae (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  70. ^ Bryn Mawr Classical Review Archived 2011-01-07 at the Wayback Machine
  71. ^ Euripides, Bacchae; Iphigenia at Aulis; Rhesus, trans. by David Kovacs (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003) ISBN 978-0-674-99601-4.
  72. ^ "full text". Archived from the original on 2 June 2023. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
  73. ^ "Bacchae Βάκχαι". 25 February 2011. Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  74. ^ "The Bacchae Translation". Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  75. ^ Stuttard, David, Looking at Bacchae: Essays and a translation of Euripides' tragedy (Bloomsbury Academic 2016)
  76. ^ Wilson, Emily, Greek Plays (Modern Library 2016)
  77. ^ Pauly, Emma (Fall 2019). "The Bacchae". The Mercurian. 7 (4) – via Freely Accessible Arts & Humanities Journals.
  78. ^ "The Bacchae, adapted from Euripides". 15 February 2021. Retrieved 2022-09-18.

References edit

  • Damen, Mark L. and Rebecca A. Richards. 2012. "'Sing the Dionysus': Euripides' Bacchae as Dramatic Hymn." American Journal of Philology 133.3: 343–369.
  • Foley, H. P. 1980. "The Masque of Dionysus." Transactions of the American Philological Association 110:107–133.
  • Friedrich, R. 1996. "Everything to do with Dionysos? Ritualism, the Dionysiac, and the Tragic." In Tragedy and the Tragic: Greek Theatre and Beyond. Edited by M. S. Silk, 257–283. Oxford: Clarendon.
  • Friesen, C. J. P. 2015. Reading Dionysus: Euripides’ 'Bacchae' and the Cultural Contestations of Greeks, Jews, Romans, and Christians Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck
  • Knoeppel, Joseph. “Meditations on Modern Bacchanalia.” University College of London, 26 July 2022,
  • Morwood, James, ed. and trans. 2000. Euripides: Bacchae and Other Plays. Oxford World's Classics. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
  • Perris, Simon. 2016. The Gentle, Jealous God: Reading Euripides’ 'Bacchae' in English. Bloomsbury Studies in Classical Reception. London; New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
  • Rehm, Rush. 1992. Greek Tragic Theatre. Theatre Production Studies ser. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-11894-8.
  • Roncace, Mark. 1997. "The Bacchae and Lord of the Flies: A Few Observations with the Help of E.R. Dodds." Classical and Modern Literature 18.1: 37–51.
  • Seaford, R. 1981. "Dionysiac Drama and the Dionysiac Mysteries." Classical Quarterly, 31.2: 252–275.
  • Segal, C. P. 1997. Dionysiac Poetics and Euripides’ Bacchae. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.
  • Stuttard, David. ed. 2016. Looking at Bacchae. London; New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
  • Teevan, C. 2001. "Bacchai". Oberon books. ISBN 1-84002-261-2
  • Thumiger, C. 2006. "Animal World, Animal Representation, and the "Hunting-Model": Between Literal and Figurative in Euripides' "Bacchae"." Phoenix, 60(3/4), 191–210.
  • Thumiger, Chiara. 2007. Hidden Paths: Self and Characterization In Greek Tragedy: Euripides' Bacchae. Institute of Classical Studies: London.

External links edit