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Schools of Vedanta
4th century CE
8th Century CE[disputed ]
11th Century CE
13th Century CE
(Vivekananda & Radhakrishnan)
19th century CE
9th century
13th century
16th century
(Chaitanya & Jiva)
16th century
Notes, references and sources for table

Notes and references

  1. ^ The realistic stance of Bhedabheda probably predates Shankara's Advaita. The Brahma Sutras may reflect a Bhedabheda-perspective. See Nicholson (2010)
  2. ^ Neo-Vedanta is a modern interpretation of Vedanta, with a liberal attitude toward the Vedas; see King (2001). It may also be regarded as a modern form of Bhedabheda, since it reconciles dualism and non-dualism; see Sooklal (1993) Nicholas F. Gier (2013) p.268-269: "Ramakrsna, Swami Vivekananda, and Aurobindo (I also include M.K. Gandhi) have been labeled "neo-Vedantists," a philosophy that rejects the Advaitins' claim that the world is illusory. Aurobindo, in his The Life Divine, declares that he has moved from Sankara's "universal illusionism" to his own "universal realism" (2005: 432), defined as metaphysical realism in the European philosophical sense of the term."


  • Gier, Nicholas F. (2012). "Overreaching to be different: A critique of Rajiv Malhotra's Being Different". International Journal of Hindu Studies. Springer Netherlands. 16 (3): 259–285. doi:10.1007/s11407-012-9127-x. ISSN 1022-4556.
  • King, Richard (2001), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Taylor & Francis e-Library
  • Nicholson, Andrew J. (2010), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press
  • Raju, P.T. (1992), The Philosophical Traditions of India, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited
  • Sheridan, Daniel (1986). The Advaitic Theism of the Bhāgavata Purāṇa. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 139. Retrieved 2012-12-12.
  • Sivananda, Swami (1993), All About Hinduism, The Divine Life Society
  • Gerald Surya, Review of "A Critique of A. C. Bhaktivedanta" by K. P. Sinha
  • Sooklal, Anil (1993), "The Neo-Vedanta Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda" (PDF), Nidan, 5, 1993
  • Olivelle, Patrick (1992). The Samnyasa Upanisads. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–18. ISBN 978-0195070453.
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