Temecula Valley is an American Viticultural Area (AVA) in the Temecula Valley, located in southwestern Riverside County, California against the eastern slopes of the Santa Ana Mountains. It was initially established by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), Treasury as "Temecula" on October 23, 1984 based on submitted petitions from by the Rancho Califomia/Temecula Winegrowers Association and Callaway Vineyard and Winery, Temecula, California in 1982.[1] It was renamed "Temecula Valley" by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) in 2004, approving the 2001 petition by Temecula Valley Winegrowers Association. The petition stated the name change would provide a more accurate description of the Temecula geography and greater clarity as to its location for wine consumers and the public. The petition did not request any change to the established AVA boundaries. This was the first American Viticultural Area to change its name after the initial approval.[4] Temecula Valley encompasses 33,000 acres (52 sq mi) and 5,000 acres (8 sq mi) is located in a "protected" area referred to as the Citrus/Vineyard Zone. This area is generally located in and around the Rancho California Road area with Riverside County. County guidelines strictly enforce the number of acres needed to build a winery, lodging and other limited housing and commercial ventures.[8]

Temecula Valley
Wine region
TypeAmerican Viticultural Area
Year established1984[1]
1986 Amended[2]
1987 Amended[3]
2004 Amended[4]
Years of wine industry204[5]
CountryUnited States
Part ofCalifornia, South Coast AVA
Climate regionRegion II,III,IV[1]
Soil conditionsdecomposed granitic[1]
Total area33,000 acres (52 sq mi)[6]
Grapes producedBlack Muscat, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Chenin blanc, Cinsault, Cortese, Dolcetto, Gamay noir, Gewurztraminer, Malbec, Merlot, Mourvedre, Muscat Canelli, Muscat of Alexandria, Nebbiolo, Orange Muscat, Palomino, Petit Verdot, Petite Sirah, Pinot gris, Pinot noir, Riesling, Roussanne, Rubired, Sangiovese, Sauvignon blanc, Semillon, Syrah, Tannat, Viognier, Zinfandel[7]
Varietals produced30[5]
No. of wineries50[5]

History edit

The name "Temecula” is derived from the Luiseno Indian word “Temeku,” a place name used by the local Indians. This word may be roughly translated as “place where the sun breaks through the white mist.” The original Temecula petition stated that this description applied to the entire viticultural area, which is in a valley characterized by bright sun and misty marine air that flows inland from the Pacific Ocean. The 1984 decision noted that it is this marine air, which enters the Temecula Valley through gaps in the Santa Ana Mountains, that allows grape growing in this area.[4] Viticulture in the Temecula area was revived in the late 1960s with plantings made by the Brookside Winery.[5]

Vincenzo and Audry Cilurzo established the first modern commercial vineyard in the Temecula Valley in 1968. At the same time, Guasti-based Brookside Winery planted its own vineyard. Mount Palomar Winery was established in 1969, by John Poole, former owner of the radio station K-BIG and who also established one of the nation's first UHF television stations (Channel 22 in Los Angeles),[9] and created Los Angeles' first commercially successful FM radio station. John introduced a number of "firsts" in the Temecula Valley, most significantly beginning the trend to Mediterranean grape varieties, planting the first Sangiovese grapes in the area, established the first wine cave in the area and also the oldest outdoor Sherry Solera in the United States. In 1971, Brookside produced the first wines from Temecula grapes at their Guasti winery. The Callaway Vineyard and Winery began farming grapes in 1969 and opened the first public tasting room in 1974. (Owner Ely Callaway Jr. also started Callaway Golf.) John Poole's Mount Palomar Winery opened its doors to the public in 1975, and in 1978 the Cilurzos opened the third Temecula winery. Their original vineyard is now owned by Maurice Carrie Winery.

Climate edit

The Temecula Valley is located more than 300 miles (500 km) south of Napa, resulting in a slightly higher angle to the sun and greater solar intensity. A look at the native chaparral shows that Temecula is in a relatively low rainfall region. These two factors contribute to an early growing season that generally runs from March through September. Rains rarely interrupt the harvest season, an important factor in wine quality.[10] Extensive research has shown that the Temecula Valley is ideal for growing high-quality wine grapes as mist often lingers until mid-morning on the 1,400-foot (430 m) plateau, located below the peaks of the local mountain ranges.[1]

Significant cooling factors affect the flavor development of the grapes. As the sun warms the inland valleys east of Temecula, the air rises, forming a low-pressure area. The colder, heavier air from the Pacific Ocean, 22 miles (35 km) from Temecula, is then drawn inland. The coastal mountain range allows the colder air to pass inland through gaps and low spots. The Rainbow Gap and the Temecula Gorge are two of these low places in the mountains, and just beyond them lay the Temecula Valley. The cool air flowing inland moderates the daytime temperatures and helps to create a pattern of warm sunny days and cool nights, ideal conditions for the best wine grapes.

Another meteorological factor affecting the valley's climate is the "lapse rate." It involves the altitude of the vineyard land and the height of the surrounding mountains. Temecula vineyards are located approximately 1,000 to 1,600 feet (305–488 m) above sea level.[7] The surrounding mountains average 2,000 to 11,000 feet (610–3,353 m). These high elevations mean cooler air, a temperature drop of 3 °F (2 °C) for every 1,000 feet (300 m) feet of altitude gain. The heavy cold air that collects between the high peaks during the night drains off the heights much like water, joining cold moist air from the Santa Margarita River, creating a double cooling effect. As a result, nighttime lows in and around Temecula are very cool. The cool nighttime temperatures are critical in developing high-quality grapes.

Temecula Valley soils are another significant influence on wine quality. The soils are created from decomposing granitic materials and are excellent for growing high-quality grapes. Grapevines require well-drained soils with roots that are not constantly wet. The granitic soils permit the water to drain through quite easily. Granitic soils, which are a light sandy loam, contribute to clean, pure varietal flavors without odd or herbaceous flavors that wetter soil may create.[11]

Grape Varieties edit

Since 1966, wine grapes have been grown in the area. In addition to growing Chardonnay, Merlot, and Sauvignon Blanc, recently, wineries have begun growing Viognier, Syrah, and Pinot Gris. The Temecula Valley's warmer climate is particularly well-suited to Rhône varieties, as well as Cabernet Sauvignon, and Zinfandel. The region is less well-suited to growing cooler-climate varieties like Pinot noir.

Tourism edit

The popularity of the Temecula Valley Wine Country and Pechanga Resort & Casino have been the driving forces in a fourfold increase in visitor spending in the valley from $131 million in 2000 to an estimated $538 million in 2006, according to a report released by the Temecula Valley Convention & Visitors Bureau.[12] According to Visit Temecula Valley's 2018 economic impact report, in 2018 there was a 26% increase in tourism spending, reaching $1.1 billion spent, up from nearly $900 million spent in 2017.[13]

The Temecula Valley is a major tourist destination on weekends. There are over 40 wineries offering public wine tasting.[11] Many of the wineries have tasting rooms designed to service scores of people at once. Many are also wedding destination venues, host live music performances in the summer, and offer lodging such as bed and breakfast and resort accommodations, as well as vineyard tours, sunset barbecues and hot air balloon rides. Major annual events include the Temecula Valley Balloon & Wine Festival[14] and the Harvest Wine Celebration.[15]

Temecula Agricultural Conservancy edit

Concurrently, the Temecula Agricultural Conservancy (TAC), a 501(c)(3) non-profit public benefit corporation, was formed with the primary mission of preserving vineyards and open space suitable for vineyards. TAC will work with the county supervisors to implement the new zoning ordinance by holding open space, vineyards and/or conservation easements, ensuring that the land remains in vineyards in perpetuity.

TAC also works with vineyard owners who wish to voluntarily protect their vineyards with conservation easements in an effort to ensure that the vineyards remain. Conservation easements are used to preserve farmland and open space throughout the United States. An agricultural conservation easement recorded on vineyard land limits the future use of that land to vineyards in perpetuity, but the vineyard owner continues to own and farm the land. By donating a conservation easement to TAC, a vineyard owner can receive a charitable tax deduction. Grants provided by the California Farmland Conservancy Program are available to organizations like TAC.[16] These grants can be used to purchase conservation easements from vineyard owners.

Temecula Valley Winegrowers Association edit

The Temecula Valley Winegrowers Association is a nonprofit regional organization (501(C)(6)) dedicated to promoting the making and growing of quality wine and wine grapes in the Temecula Appellation.[5]

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d e "Establishment of the Temecula Viticultura! Area" (27 CFR Part 9 [T.D. ATF-188; Re: Notice Nos. 416 and 438] Final Rule). Federal Register. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), Treasury. 49 (206): 42563–42567. October 23, 1984.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. ^ "Revision of the Boundary of the Temecula Viticultura! Area" (27 CFR Part 9 [T.D. ATF-221; Re: Notice No. 571] Final Rule). Federal Register. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), Treasury. 51 (5): 749–750. January 6, 1986.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ "§ 9.50 [Amended]" (27 CFR Part 9 [T.D. ATF-221; Re: Notice No. 571] Final Rule). Federal Register. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), Treasury. 52 (39): 5958. January 6, 1986.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. ^ a b c "Temecula Valley Viticultural Area (2001R–280P)" (27 CFR Part 9 [T.D. TTB–10; Re: ATF Notice No. 958] RIN 1513–AA40 Final Rule). Federal Register. Alcohol, Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB), Treasury. 69 (75): 20823–20825. April 19, 2004.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Premier Wine Country". Temecula Wine. Temecula Valley Winegrowers Association. 2024.
  6. ^ "American Viticultural Areas by State". Wine Institute. 2008. Archived from the original on January 27, 2008.
  7. ^ a b "Temecula Valley (AVA): Appellation Profile". Appellation America. 2007. Archived from the original on May 19, 2008. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
  8. ^ Newcomb, Michael, Esq. (2009). "Starting a Winery in Temecula". Newcomb Law.com. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved June 22, 2008.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ "KBIC-TV/22, Los Angeles CA". The History of UHF Television. Retrieved November 5, 2019.
  10. ^ "Temecula Valley – A Unique Micro-Climate". Palumbo Family Vineyards & Winery. 2008. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
  11. ^ a b "Temecula Wineries". California Winery Advisor. Retrieved April 7, 2016.
  12. ^ Sack, Nicole (May 26, 2007). "Wine, gambling bolster area tourism industry". The San Diego Union-Tribune.
  13. ^ Jennewein, Chris (June 21, 2019). "Tourism Spending in Temecula Valley Grew 26% to $1.1 Billion in 2018". Times of San Diego.
  14. ^ "Temecula Valley Balloon and Wine Festival". Retrieved January 23, 2008.
  15. ^ "Temecula – November Events". WineCounty.com. 2008. Archived from the original on August 13, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
  16. ^ "California Farmland Conservancy Program". State of California Department of Conservation. Division of Land Resource Protection. 2008. Archived from the original on July 2, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2008.

External links edit

33°31′36″N 117°05′23″W / 33.52658353°N 117.08977030°W / 33.52658353; -117.08977030