Teip (also taip, teyp; Vaynakh тайпа taypa [ˈtajpə]: family, kin, clan, tribe) is a Chechen and Ingush tribal organization or clan, self-identified through descent from a common ancestor or geographic location. There are about 150 Chechen teips. Teips played and continue to play significant role in the socioeconomic life of the Chechen and Ingush peoples.
Traditional teip rules and featuresEdit
Common teip rules and some features:
- The right of communal land tenure.
- Common revenge for murder of a teip member or insulting of the members of a teip.
- Unconditional exogamy.
- Election of a teip representative.
- Election of a headman.
- Election of a military leader in case of war.
- Open sessions of the Council of Elders.
- The right of the teip to depose its representatives.
- Representation of women by male relatives.
- The right of the adoption of outside people.
- The transfer of property of departed to members of the teip.
- The teip has a defined territory.
- The teip constructed a teip tower or another building or natural monument convenient as a shelter, e.g. a fortress.
- The teip had its own taip cemetery.
List of teipsEdit
Below is a list of teips with the tukkhum to which it may belong.
- Cheberloy tukkhum (Russian: Чебарлой);
- Sharoy tukkhum (Russian: Шарой);
- Shotoy tukkhum (Russian: Шотой);
- Akkiy tukkhum (Russian: Аккий);
- Myalkhi tukkhum (Russian: Мялхи);
- Nokhchmakhkakhoy tukkhum (Russian: Нохчмахкахой);
- Alaroy (Russian: Аларой);
- Belgatoy (Russian: Белгатой);
- Benoy (Russian: Беной);
- Biltoy (Russian: Билтой);
- Chartoy (Russian: Чартой);
- Chermoy (Russian: Чермой);
- Centoroy (Russian: Цонтарой);
- Elistanzhkhoy (Russian: Элистанжхой);
- Enganoy (Russian: Энганой);
- Ersenoy (Russian: Эрсеной);
- Gendargenoy (Russian: Гендаргеной);
- Gordaloy (Russian: Гордалой);
- Gunoi (Russian: Гуной);
- Kharachoy (Russian: Харачой);
- Yalkhoy (Russian: Ялхой);
- Zandakhoy (Russian: Зандакъой);
- Orstkhoi tukkhum (Russian: Орстхой);
- Terloy tukkhum (Russian: Терлой);
- Chantiy tukkhum (Russian: Чантий);
- Chanti (Russian: Чанти);
- Tukkhum is not known;
- Chinnakhoy (Russian: Чиннахой);
- Marshaloy (Russian: Маршалой);
- Mulkoy (Russian: Мулкой);
- Nashkhoy (Russian: Нашхой);
- Peshkhoy (Russian: Пешхой);
- Satoy (Russian: Сатой);
- Turkoy (Russian: Туркой);
- Khindkhoy (Russian: Хиндхой);
- Kalkhoy (Russian: Калхой);
- Yalkhoroy (Russian: Ялхорой);
- Zumsoy (Russian: Зумсой);
- Zurzakkhoy (Russian: Зурзакхой).
Teip based assimilationEdit
Historically, if non-Chechen minorities living in Chechen lands wanted to take part in the political processes of the Chechen nation and integrate into it, they would request admittance as an ethnic teip. They would continue, for a time, to speak their other languages, but also learned Chechen. Due to the encouragement of teip exogamy, as the generations passed, they would intermarry with others of the Chechen nation and, as a result, be slowly assimilated culturally and linguistically.
A notable modern example of the formation of an ethnic teip is the ethnic Germans, who lived among the Chechens during their joint exiles in Kazakhstan and Siberia: during this period of 13 years, the Germans decided to join the teip system. The new "German" taip was founded by M. Weisert, whose extended family still lived chiefly in Germany.
- Нохчийн-Оьрсийн словарь (Chechen-Russian Dictionary, A.G. Matsiyev, Moscow, 1961), also available online: Чеченско-Русский словарь: “схьаIенадала-такхадала” Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine; and Ингушско-Русский словарь (online Ingush-Russian dictionary) Archived 2012-08-17 at WebCite (in Russian)
- Traditional Social Organisation of Chechen people Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine