Tamanu oil is pressed from nuts of either Calophyllum inophyllum (usually) or Calophyllum tacamahaca (ati), tropical trees belonging to the Calophyllaceae family. The nuts yield 70–75% the greenish-yellow inedible oil.[1] The oil originates in Polynesia, where it continues to play an important cultural role.[citation needed] Commercial uses of tamanu oil are predominantly for skin care. The oil has both medicinal value and use as a fuel. Calophyllum inophyllum oil (CIO) is rich in antioxidants and contains UV-absorption properties that can be used within the dermatology field.[2] Tamanu oil has been found to have wound healing and antibacterial properties in low concentration, but is cytotoxic (cell-damaging) in high concentration.[3]

Tamanu fruit
The fruit of the tamanu tree

UsesEdit

The seeds yield a thick, dark green oil, used medicinally or as hair grease. The first neoflavone isolated in 1951 from natural sources was calophyllolide from C. inophyllum seeds.[4]

The fatty acid methyl esters derived from C. inophyllum seed oil meet the major biodiesel requirements in the United States (ASTM D 6751), and European Union (EN 14214). The average oil yield is 11.7 kg-oil/tree or 4680 kg-oil/hectare. In the northwest coastal areas of Luzon island in the Philippines, the oil was used for night lamps.[5] This widespread use started to decline when kerosene, and later electricity, became available. It was also used as fuel to generate electricity to power radios during World War II. A farmer in Nagappattinam district of Tamil Nadu, India, has successfully used the oil as biodiesel to run his 5-hp pumpset.[6]

In Southern India, the oil is used to treat skin diseases: it is also applied topically in cases of rheumatism. The oil may have been useful in waterproofing cloth and is used as a varnish. An extract from the fruit was once used to make a brown dye to colour cloth. The oil can also be used to make soap.[7]

In most of the South Sea islands, tamanu (or sultan champa) oil is used as an analgesic medicine (natives use it for sciatica and rheumatism) and to cure ulcers and bad wounds.[8]

Oil extracted from the seeds is traditionally used topically to treat a wide range of skin injuries from burn, scar and infected wounds to skin diseases such as dermatosis, urticaria and eczema. CIO has been confirmed to be a safe topical solution. Studies showed that, through scratch essay, CIO in 0.1% concentration accelerates keratinocyte wound healing.[9]

CIO exhibits high antibacterial activity against bacterial strains involved in acne.[10]

Recently, studies have shown that CIO appears a promising source to develop new antibiotics, notably to fight multi-drug resistant bacteria implicated in skin infections.[11]

Other namesEdit

It is also called beauty leaf oil, calophyllum inophyllum seed oil, calophyllum inophyllum oil, kamani oil, calophyllum oil, calophyllum inophyllum essential oil, dilo oil, foraha oil, Alexandrian laurel oil, poon oil, nyamplung oil, domba oil, honne oil (Honge is used as biodiesel), undi oil, pinnai oil, fetau oil, punnai oil, daok oil, pinnay oil, kamanu oil, bitaog oil, tamanu nut oil, punna oil, takamaka oil (ambiguous), laurelwood oil (ambiguous), tacamahac oil (ambiguous), punnaga oil, fetaʻu oil, palo maria oil, ballnut tree oil, ballnut oil, btaches oil, beach calophyllum oil, or mù u oil.

  • Chamorro: daok
  • English: beauty leaf, Alexandrian laurel
  • Hindi: सुलतान चम्पा sultan champa
  • Indonesia: nyamplung
  • Japanese: テリハボク terihaboku
  • Kannada: ಸುರಹೊನ್ನೆ, surhonne
  • Konkani: उंडी undi, उंगम unga
  • Malayalam: പുന്ന punna
  • Marathi: सुरंगी surangi पुन्नाग punnag, उंड unda, उंडी undi
  • Oriya: tungakesara ତୁଙ୍ଗକେଶର Polang ପୋଲାଙ୍ଗ
  • Sanskrit: काम्बोज kambojh, कुम्भीक kumbhikh, नाग चम्पा naag champa, नागपुष्प nagapushpah
  • Tamil: புன்னை punnai
  • Telugu: punnaga, నమేరువు nameruvu, పొన్న ponna
  • Tulu: ponne
  • Urdu: سرپن surpun
  • Vietnamese: dầu mù u
 
Tree
 
Inflorescence
 
Flower

FruitsEdit

Fruiting takes place twice a year, in May and November. The fruit (the ball nut) is a round, green drupe reaching 2 to 4 cm in diameter and having a single large seed. When ripe, the fruit is wrinkled and its color varies from yellow to brownish-red. The weight of the fruit is 9 to 16.0 g when fresh. After drying, the weight is reduced to about 4 g. Ripe and fallen fruits are collected from the bottom of the tree, by beating the limbs with a long hand stick, or hand-picked by climbing the tree.

KernelEdit

The kernel comprises 43–52% of the weight of the whole dry fruit. The kernel is 1.5 cm in diameter, enclosed in a soft- and a hard seed coat. The kernel contains 55–73% oil and 25% moisture when fresh.[12]

Seed processing and extraction of oilEdit

The seeds are decorticated by wooden mallets or by decorticators or by pressing under planks. Usually, the kernels are pressed in wooden and stone ghani.[12]

Properties and fatty acids of oilEdit

The oil is bluish-yellow to dark green and viscous, known as domba-, pinnai- or dilo oil. It has a disagreeable taste and odour as it contains some resinous material that can easily be removed by refining. The concentration of resinous substances in the oil varies from 10 to 30%.[13] The main compounds of the seed oil are oleic-, linoleic-, stearic- and palmitic acids.

Physical characteristics[12]

physical character Range
Refractive index 30 °C 1.460-1.470
Iodine value 79-98
Saponification value 190-205
Unsaponifiable matter 1.5%, maximum
Acid value 20-40
Moisture 0.5%, maximum

Fatty acids present in oil[citation needed]

Fatty acid Percentage
Palmitic acid 14.8-18.5
Stearic acid 6.0-9.0
Oleic acid 36-53
Linoleic acid 16-29
Erucic acid 2.5-3.5

Another source[citation needed] says the oil contains the following fatty acids:

Fatty acid Content
Linoleic acid 38%
Oleic acid 34%
Stearic acid 13%
Palmitic acid 12%

Other components include calophyllolide, friedelin, inophyllums B and P, terpenic essences, benzoic and oxibenzoic acids, phospho-amino lipids, glycerides, saturated fatty acids, and 4-phenylcoumarins.[8]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Richmond, George P.; del Rosario, Mariano Vivencio (1907). "Commercial Utilization of some Philippine Oil-Bearing Seeds; Preliminary Paper". The Philippine Journal of Science. II: 444.
  2. ^ Léguillier, Teddy; Lecsö-Bornet, Marylin; Lémus, Christelle; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine; Lebouvier, Nicolas; Hnawia, Edouard; Nour, Mohammed; Aalbersberg, William; Ghazi, Kamelia; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Rat, Patrice (2015-09-25). "The Wound Healing and Antibacterial Activity of Five Ethnomedical Calophyllum inophyllum Oils: An Alternative Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Infected Wounds". PLOS ONE. 10 (9): e0138602. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1038602L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138602. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4583440. PMID 26406588.  This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  3. ^ Léguillier, Teddy; Lecsö-Bornet, Marylin; Lémus, Christelle; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine; Lebouvier, Nicolas; Hnawia, Edouard; Nour, Mohammed; Aalbersberg, William; Ghazi, Kamelia; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Rat, Patrice (2015-09-25). "The Wound Healing and Antibacterial Activity of Five Ethnomedical Calophyllum inophyllum Oils: An Alternative Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Infected Wounds". PLOS ONE. 10 (9): e0138602. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1038602L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138602. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4583440. PMID 26406588.
  4. ^ Garazd, M. M.; Garazd, Ya L.; Khilya, V. P. (2003-01-01). "Neoflavones. 1. Natural Distribution and Spectral and Biological Properties". Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 39 (1): 54–121. doi:10.1023/A:1024140915526. ISSN 0009-3130. S2CID 38062976.
  5. ^ "Alexandrain Laurel, Undi, Undal, Sultan Champa". Gardentia. Retrieved 2017-11-12.
  6. ^ Prabu, M. J. (2014-03-26). "Using bio fuel to run an irrigation pump for five acres". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2017-11-12.
  7. ^ "Undi". www.svlele.com. Retrieved 2017-11-12.
  8. ^ a b Dweck, A. C.; Meadows, T. (December 2002). "Tamanu (Calophyllum inophyllum) – the African, Asian, Polynesian and Pacific Panacea" (PDF). International Journal of Cosmetic Science. 24 (6): 341–348. doi:10.1046/j.1467-2494.2002.00160.x. ISSN 1468-2494. PMID 18494888. S2CID 21847865.
  9. ^ Léguillier, Teddy; Lecsö-Bornet, Marylin; Lémus, Christelle; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine; Lebouvier, Nicolas; Hnawia, Edouard; Nour, Mohammed; Aalbersberg, William; Ghazi, Kamelia; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Rat, Patrice (2015-09-25). "The Wound Healing and Antibacterial Activity of Five Ethnomedical Calophyllum inophyllum Oils: An Alternative Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Infected Wounds". PLOS ONE. 10 (9): e0138602. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1038602L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138602. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4583440. PMID 26406588.
  10. ^ Léguillier, Teddy; Lecsö-Bornet, Marylin; Lémus, Christelle; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine; Lebouvier, Nicolas; Hnawia, Edouard; Nour, Mohammed; Aalbersberg, William; Ghazi, Kamelia; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Rat, Patrice (2015-09-25). "The Wound Healing and Antibacterial Activity of Five Ethnomedical Calophyllum inophyllum Oils: An Alternative Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Infected Wounds". PLOS ONE. 10 (9): e0138602. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1038602L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138602. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4583440. PMID 26406588.
  11. ^ Léguillier, Teddy; Lecsö-Bornet, Marylin; Lémus, Christelle; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine; Lebouvier, Nicolas; Hnawia, Edouard; Nour, Mohammed; Aalbersberg, William; Ghazi, Kamelia; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Rat, Patrice (2015-09-25). "The Wound Healing and Antibacterial Activity of Five Ethnomedical Calophyllum inophyllum Oils: An Alternative Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Infected Wounds". PLOS ONE. 10 (9): e0138602. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1038602L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138602. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4583440. PMID 26406588.
  12. ^ a b c SEAHand Book-2009 by The Solvent Extractors' Association of India
  13. ^ "Calophyllum inophyllum Species Information" (PDF). Agroforestree Database. 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2019-08-27.

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