Supreme Court of Croatia
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|Supreme Court of the Republic of Croatia|
Croatian: Vrhovni sud Republike Hrvatske
|Composition method||Elected by the National Judicial Council|
|Authorized by||Constitution of the Republic of Croatia|
|Judge term length||Five years in the first term, life tenure after renewal with mandatory retirement at the age of 70|
|Number of positions||42|
|Currently||Đuro Sessa, mag. iur.|
|Since||July 20, 2017|
Courts protect the legal order of the Republic of Croatia as established by the Constitution and law, and provide for the uniform application of law and equal justice for all.
Administration of justice in the Republic of Croatia is carried out by:
- municipal courts,
- county courts,
- commercial courts,
- administrative courts,
- the High Commercial Court of the Republic of Croatia,
- the High Administrative Court of the Republic of Croatia
- the High Misdemeanour Court of the Republic of Croatia,
- the High Criminal Court of the Republic of Croatia and
- the Supreme Court of the Republic of Croatia.
N.B. Since July 2018 (effective as of 1 January 2019) former misdemeanour courts have become specialized sections within municipal courts (2 misdemeanour courts - in Zagreb and in Split - have been retained as separate courts - the Municipal Misdemeanour Court in Zagreb and the Municipal Misdemeanour Court in Split), also former Municipal Court in Zagreb has been divided into three courts: the Municipal Civil Court in Zagreb, the Municipal Criminal Court in Zagreb and the Municipal Labour Court in Zagreb.
Powers and responsibilitiesEdit
Supreme Court basic duties:
- ensures the uniform application of law and equal protection of all citizens before the law,
- discusses all important legal issues arising from the court practice
- decides on extraordinary legal remedies against final decisions of all courts in the Republic of Croatia (cassation, criminal revision etc.),
- hears appeals against decisions of county courts rendered in the first instance and, in special cases, hears appeals against decisions of county courts rendered in the second instance,
- hears appeals against decisions of the High Commercial Court of the Republic of Croatia, the High Administrative Court of the Republic of Croatia, the High Misdemeanour Court of the Republic of Croatia and the High Criminal Court of the Republic of Croatia, and any other court when specified so by the law,
- decides on the conflict of jurisdiction between the courts in the territory of the Republic of Croatia when they have the same immediately superiour court,
- provides for the professional development of judges.
The President of the Supreme Court is elected and relieved of duty by the Croatian Parliament at the proposal of the President of the Republic and following a prior opinion of the Parliament's Justice Committee and the Plenary Session of the Supreme Court.
Judicial office is permanent, but exceptionally, at assuming the judicial office for the first time, judges are appointed for a five-year term. After the renewal of the appointment, judges assume their duty as permanent.
All judges are appointed by the National Judicial Council and relieves them of judicial duty, as well as decides on their disciplinary responsibility.
A judge can be relieved of judicial office:
- at his/her own request
- if he/she has become permanently incapacitated to perform judicial office
- if sentenced for a criminal offence which makes him/her unworthy of the judicial office
- if, in conformity with the law, so decides the National Judicial Council due to the commitment of an act of serious infringement of discipline
- when reaching 70 years of age
Presidents of the Supreme CourtEdit
|Term began||Term ended||Service||Notes|
|12 December 1990||14 February 1992||1 year,
|Went into mandatory retirement after a partial term of office.|
|29 March 1992||29 September 1992||184 days||Died in a car accident during his first term.|
|1 December 1992||1995||First term.|
|26 May 1995||19 February 1997||1 year,
|Relieved from office by the National Judicial Council on 14 January 1997 and decision is later confirmed by the Chamber of Counties of the Croatian Parliament.|
|28 February 1997||1999||Second term.|
|10 March 1999||2001|
|15 May 2001||15 May 2005||4 years,
|One full term. Did not seek reelection.|
|19 July 2005||19 July 2017||12 years,
|Three full terms.|
|20 July 2017||Incumbent (Current term ends on 20 July 2021)||4 years, 0 days||Currently serving first term.|