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Sulfadiazine is an antibiotic.[2] Used together with pyrimethamine, it is the treatment of choice for toxoplasmosis.[4] It is a second-line treatment for otitis media, prevention of rheumatic fever, chancroid, chlamydia, and infections by Haemophilus influenzae.[2] It is taken by mouth.[2]

Sulfadiazine
Sulfadiazine-2D-skeletal.png
Sulfadiazine-3D-vdW.png
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa682130
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out) [1]
Routes of
administration
Topical cream, by mouth
Drug classAntibiotic (sulfonamide)[2]
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability?
Protein binding38-48%[3]
MetabolismLiver (acetylation)[3]
Elimination half-life7-17 hours [3]
ExcretionUrine [3]
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.000.623 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC10H10N4O2S
Molar mass250.278 g/mol g·mol−1
Melting point252 to 256 °C (486 to 493 °F)
 ☒N☑Y (what is this?)  (verify)

Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, headache, fever, rash, depression, and pancreatitis.[2] It should not be used in people who have severe liver problems, kidney problems, or porphyria.[4] If used during pregnancy, it may increase the risk of kernicterus in the baby.[2] While the company that makes it does not recommend use during breastfeeding, use is believed to be safe if the baby is otherwise healthy.[1] It is in the sulfonamide class of medications.[2]

Sulfadiazine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1941.[2][5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[6] Sulfadiazine is available as a generic medication.[2] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$2.70 to 7.32 a month.[7] In the United States, treatment costs more than $200 per month.[8]

Medical usesEdit

It eliminates bacteria that cause infections by stopping the production of folate inside the bacterial cell, and is commonly used to treat urinary tract infections and burns.

In combination, sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine can be used to treat toxoplasmosis, the disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.

Mechanism of actionEdit

Sulfadiazine works by inhibiting the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase.

Side effectsEdit

Side effects reported for sulfadiazine include nausea, loss of appetite, and dizziness.

Brand namesEdit

This drug is sold branded as Lantrisul, Neotrizine, Sulfa-Triple #2, Sulfadiazine, Sulfaloid, Sulfonamides Duplex, Sulfose, Terfonyl, Triple Sulfa, Triple Sulfas, and Triple Sulfoid.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Sulfadiazine Use During Pregnancy | Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Sulfadiazine". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  3. ^ a b c d "Sulfadiazine Monograph for Professionals | Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  4. ^ a b WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. pp. 126, 205. ISBN 9789241547659. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  5. ^ "Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products". www.accessdata.fda.gov. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  6. ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  7. ^ "Sulfadiazine". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  8. ^ Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 104. ISBN 9781284057560.