Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1

Sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) also known as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SREBF1 gene.[5][6]

Protein SREBF1 PDB 1am9.png
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesSREBF1, SREBP-1c, SREBP1, bHLHd1, SREBP1a, sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1
External IDsOMIM: 184756 MGI: 107606 HomoloGene: 3079 GeneCards: SREBF1
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 17 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 17 (human)[1]
Chromosome 17 (human)
Genomic location for SREBF1
Genomic location for SREBF1
Band17p11.2Start17,810,399 bp[1]
End17,837,011 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE SREBF1 202308 at fs.png
More reference expression data
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 17: 17.81 – 17.84 MbChr 11: 60.2 – 60.22 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

This gene is located within the Smith–Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[7] The isoforms are SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c (the latter also called ADD-1). SREBP-1a is expressed in the intestine and spleen, whereas SREBP-1c is mainly expressed in liver, muscle, and fat (among other tissues).[citation needed]


The proteins encoded by this gene are transcription factors that bind to a sequence in the promoter of different genes, called sterol regulatory element-1 (SRE1). This element is a decamer (oligomer with ten subunits) flanking the LDL receptor gene and other genes involved in, for instance, sterol biosynthesis. The protein is synthesized as a precursor that is attached to the nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. Following cleavage, the mature protein translocates to the nucleus and activates transcription by binding to the SRE1. Sterols inhibit the cleavage of the precursor, and the mature nuclear form is rapidly catabolized, thereby reducing transcription. The protein is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factor family.

SREBP-1a regulates genes related to lipid and cholesterol production and its activity is regulated by sterol levels in the cell.[8]

SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c are both encoded by the same gene, but are transcribed by different promoters.[9] For animals in a fasted state, SREBP-1c expression is suppressed in the liver, but a high carbohydrate meal (by insulin release) strongly induces SREBP-1c expression.[9]


SREBP-1 plays a key role in the induction of lipogenesis by the liver.[10] mTORC1 is activated by insulin (a hormone of nutrient abundance) leading to increased production of SBREP-1c, which facilitates storage of fatty acids (excess nutrients) as triglycerides.[11]

Clinical relevanceEdit

SREBP-1c regulates genes required for glucose metabolism and fatty acid and lipid production and its expression is induced by insulin.[12] Insulin-stimulated SREBP-1c increases glycolysis by activation of glucokinase enzyme, and increases lipogenesis (conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids).[12] Insulin stimulation of SREBP-1c is mediated by liver X receptor (LXR) and mTORC1.[13]

High blood levels of insulin due to insulin resistance often leads to steatosis in the liver because of SREBP-1 activation.[9] Suppression of SREBP-1c by sirtuin 1 [14] or by other means[15] protects against development of fatty liver.

SREBP-1 is highly activated in cancers because tumor cells require lipids for cell membranes, second messengers, and energy.[16]


SREBF1 has been shown to interact with:

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000072310 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000020538 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ Yokoyama C, Wang X, Briggs MR, Admon A, Wu J, Hua X, Goldstein JL, Brown MS (Oct 1993). "SREBP-1, a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene". Cell. 75 (1): 187–97. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(05)80095-9. PMID 8402897. S2CID 2784016.
  6. ^ Hua X, Wu J, Goldstein JL, Brown MS, Hobbs HH (Feb 1995). "Structure of the human gene encoding sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBF1) and localization of SREBF1 and SREBF2 to chromosomes 17p11.2 and 22q13". Genomics. 25 (3): 667–73. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(95)80009-B. PMID 7759101.
  7. ^ "Entrez Gene: SREBF1 sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1".
  8. ^ Eberlé D, Hegarty B, Bossard P, Ferré P, Foufelle F (Nov 2004). "SREBP transcription factors: master regulators of lipid homeostasis". Biochimie. 86 (11): 839–48. doi:10.1016/j.biochi.2004.09.018. PMID 15589694.
  9. ^ a b c Xu X, So JS, Park JG, Lee AH (2013). "Transcriptional control of hepatic lipid metabolism by SREBP and ChREBP". Seminars in Liver Disease. 33 (4): 301–311. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1358523. PMC 4035704. PMID 24222088.
  10. ^ Shimano H, Yahagi N, Amemiya-Kudo M, Hasty AH, Osuga J, Tamura Y, Shionoiri F, Iizuka Y, Ohashi K, Harada K, Gotoda T, Ishibashi S, Yamada N (1999). "Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 as a key transcription factor for nutritional induction of lipogenic enzyme gene". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (50): 35832–9. doi:10.21037/hbsn.2016.11.08. PMC 5218901. PMID 10585467.
  11. ^ Li S, Brown MS, Goldstein JL (2010). "Bifurcation of insulin signaling pathway in rat liver: mTORC1 required for stimulation of lipogenesis, but not inhibition of gluconeogenesis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107 (8): 3441–3446. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.3441L. doi:10.1073/pnas.0914798107. PMC 2840492. PMID 20133650.
  12. ^ a b Ferré P, Foufelle F (Oct 2010). "Hepatic steatosis: a role for de novo lipogenesis and the transcription factor SREBP-1c". Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism. 12 Suppl 2 (Suppl 2): 83–92. doi:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2010.01275.x. PMID 21029304.
  13. ^ Bakan I, Laplante M (2012). "Connecting mTORC1 signaling to SREBP-1 activation". Current Opinion in Lipidology. 23 (3): 226–234. doi:10.1097/MOL.0b013e328352dd03. PMID 22449814.
  14. ^ Ponugoti B, Kim DH, Xiao Z, Smith Z, Miao J, Zang M, Wu SY, Chiang CM, Veenstra TD, Kemper JK (2010). "SIRT1 deacetylates and inhibits SREBP-1C activity in regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 (44): 33959–70. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.122978. PMC 2962496. PMID 20817729.
  15. ^ Song Z, Xiaoli AM, Yang F (2018). "Regulation and Metabolic Significance of De Novo Lipogenesis in Adipose Tissues". Nutrients. 10 (10): E1383. doi:10.3390/nu10101383. PMC 6213738. PMID 30274245.
  16. ^ Guo D, Bell EH, Mischel P, Chakravarti A (2014). "Targeting SREBP-1-driven lipid metabolism to treat cancer". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 20 (15): 2619–2626. doi:10.2174/13816128113199990486. PMC 4148912. PMID 23859617.
  17. ^ Oliner JD, Andresen JM, Hansen SK, Zhou S, Tjian R (Nov 1996). "SREBP transcriptional activity is mediated through an interaction with the CREB-binding protein". Genes & Development. 10 (22): 2903–11. doi:10.1101/gad.10.22.2903. PMID 8918891.
  18. ^ Lopez D, Shea-Eaton W, Sanchez MD, McLean MP (Dec 2001). "DAX-1 represses the high-density lipoprotein receptor through interaction with positive regulators sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a and steroidogenic factor-1". Endocrinology. 142 (12): 5097–106. doi:10.1210/endo.142.12.8523. PMID 11713202.
  19. ^ Lloyd DJ, Trembath RC, Shackleton S (Apr 2002). "A novel interaction between lamin A and SREBP1: implications for partial lipodystrophy and other laminopathies". Human Molecular Genetics. 11 (7): 769–77. doi:10.1093/hmg/11.7.769. PMID 11929849.
  20. ^ Lee YS, Lee HH, Park J, Yoo EJ, Glackin CA, Choi YI, Jeon SH, Seong RH, Park SD, Kim JB (Dec 2003). "Twist2, a novel ADD1/SREBP1c interacting protein, represses the transcriptional activity of ADD1/SREBP1c". Nucleic Acids Research. 31 (24): 7165–74. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg934. PMC 291873. PMID 14654692.
  21. ^ a b Gorski, Jeffery; Price, Jeffery (2016). "Bone muscle crosstalk targets muscle regeneration pathway regulated by core circadian transcriptional repressors DEC1 and DEC2". BoneKEy Reports. 5: 850. doi:10.1038/bonekey.2016.80. PMC 5111231. PMID 27867498. Retrieved 2017-04-13.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.