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Spongin, a modified type of collagen protein, forms the fibrous skeleton of most organisms among the phylum Porifera, the sponges. It is secreted by sponge cells known as spongocytes.[1]

Spongin gives a sponge its flexibility. True spongin is found only in members of the class Demospongiae.[2]

Research directionsEdit

Use in the removal of phenolic compounds from wastewaterEdit

Researchers have found spongin to be useful in the photocatalytic degradation and removal of bisphenols (such as BPA) in wastewater. A heterogeneous catalyst consisting of a spongin scaffold for iron phthalocyanine (SFe) in conjunction with peroxide and UV radiation has been shown to remove phenolic wastes more quickly and efficiently than conventional methods.[3] Other research using spongin scaffolds for the immobilization of Trametes versicolor Laccase has shown similar results in phenol degradation.[4]


  1. ^ Anderson, D. (2001). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ Brusca, R.; Brusca, G. (2003). Invertebrate Zoology. Sinauer Associates. p. 191.
  3. ^ Norman, Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Ehrlich, and Jesionowski. "Iron(III) Phthalocyanine Supported on a Spongin Scaffold as an Advanced Photocatalyst in a Highly Efficient Removal Process of Halophenols and Bisphenol A." Journal of Hazardous Materials 347 (2018): 78-88. Web.
  4. ^ Zdarta, Antecka, Frankowski, Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Ehrlich, and Jesionowski. "The Effect of Operational Parameters on the Biodegradation of Bisphenols by Trametes Versicolor Laccase Immobilized on Hippospongia Communis Spongin Scaffolds." Science of the Total Environment 615 (2018): 784-95. Web.