In chemistry, peroxides are a group of compounds with the structure R−O−O−R, where R is any element.[1][2] The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxy group (sometimes called peroxo group). The nomenclature is somewhat variable,[3] and the term was introduced by Thomas Thomson in 1804 for an oxide with the greatest quantity of oxygen.[4]

Peroxide
Names
IUPAC name
Peroxide
Systematic IUPAC name
Dioxidanediide
Other names
Dioxide(2-)
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
486
  • InChI=1S/O2/c1-2/q-2
    Key: ANAIPYUSIMHBEL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • ion: [O-][O-]
Properties
R−O−O−R'
Molar mass 31.998 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Types of peroxides, from top to bottom: peroxide ion, organic peroxide, organic hydroperoxide, peracid. The peroxide group is marked in blue. R, R1 and R2 mark hydrocarbon moieties.

The most common peroxide is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), colloquially known simply as "peroxide". It is marketed as solutions in water at various concentrations. Many organic peroxides are known as well.

O−O bond length = 147.4 pm O−H bond length = 95.0 pm
Structure and dimensions of H2O2.

In addition to hydrogen peroxide, some other major classes of peroxides are:

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
  2. ^ Smith, Michael B.; March, Jerry (2007), Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure (6th ed.), New York: Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 978-0-471-72091-1
  3. ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006–) "peroxides". doi:10.1351/goldbook.P04510
  4. ^ Harper, Douglas. "peroxide". Online Etymology Dictionary.