The Eyalet of Sidon (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت صیدا, Eyālet-i Ṣaydā) was an eyalet (also known as a beylerbeylik) of the Ottoman Empire. In the 19th century, the eyalet extended from the border with Egypt to the Bay of Kesrouan, including parts of modern Israel and Lebanon.
|Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire|
The Sidon Eyalet in 1795
|Today part of|| Lebanon|
Ottoman rulers considered creating the Province as early as 1585. The districts of Beirut-Sidon and Safed (encompassing much of the Galilee) were united under the rule of Ma'nid Emir Fakhr-al-Din ibn Maan.
The Province was briefly created during Fakhr-al-Din's exile in 1614–15, and recreated in 1660. The province continued to be subordinated in some ways, both in fiscal and political matters, to the Damascus province out of which it was created.
Despite conflicts in the 1660s, the Maan family "played the leading role in the management of the internal affairs of this eyalet until the closing years of the 17th century, perhaps because it was not possible to manage the province-certainly not in the sanjak of Sidon-Beirut-without them."
Late 17th to 18th centuriesEdit
The Maans were succeeded by the Shihab family in ruling Sidon-Beirut from the final years of the 17th century through the 19th century. The Maans were first recognized as "emirs" in 1592 when Fakhr al-Din Maan was made (honorary) governor of the sanjak of Safad, and both the Maans and the Shihabis were recognized by the Ottomans as incumbents of an only vaguely defined, only implicitly "Druze" emirate. They never actually exercised any administrative function beyond that of multazim (tax farmer) over several mountain districts in the eyalet of Sidon (the Shuf). In 1763 the Shihabis were also invested with tax farms in the eyalet of Tripoli that had formerly been held by the Shiite Hamada family, which marks the beginning of the "emirate"'s sovereignty over the whole of Mt Lebanon.
Early and mid 19th centuryEdit
As part of the Egyptian–Ottoman War of 1831–33, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt took Acre after a severe siege on May 27, 1832. The Egyptian occupation intensified rivalries between Druzes and Maronites, as Ibrahim Pasha openly favoured Christians in his administration and his army. In 1840, the governor of Sidon moved his residence to Beirut, effectively making it the new capital of the eyalet. After the return to Ottoman rule in 1841, the Druzes dislodged Bashir III al-Shihab, to whom the sultan had granted the title of emir.
In 1842 the Ottoman government introduced the Double Kaymakamate, whereby Mount Lebanon would be governed by a Maronite appointee and the more southerly regions of Kisrawan and Shuf would be governed by a Druze. Both would remain under the indirect rule of the governor of Sidon. This partition of Lebanon proved to be a mistake. Animosities between the religious sects increased, and by 1860 they escalated into a full-blown sectarian violence. In the 1860 Lebanon conflict that followed, thousands of Christians were killed in massacres that culminated with the Damascus Riots of July 1860.
Following the international outcry caused by the massacres, the French landed troops in Beirut and the Ottomans abolished the unworkable system of the Kaymakamate and instituted in its place the Mutasarrifate of Mount Lebanon, a Maronite-majority district to be governed by non-Lebanese Christian mutasarrıf, which was the direct predecessor of the political system that continued to exist in Lebanon's early post-independence years. The new arrangement ended the turmoil, and the region prospered in the last decades of the Ottoman Empire.
- Abidin Pasha (1685)
- Kavanoz Ahmed Pasha (1691/92 – 1694/95)
- Qublan Pasha al-Matarji (1700–1703)
- Arslan Pasha al-Matarji (1703–1706)
- Bashir Pasha al-Matarji (1706–1712)
- Uthman Pasha Abu Tawq (1712–1715)
- Bashir Pasha al-Matarji (1715–1717)
- Uthman Pasha Abu Tawq (1717–1718)
- Genç Ahmed Pasha (1716–1718)
- Damat Hafiz Ahmed Pasha (November 1722 – 1723/24; 1st term)
- Ahmad Pasha Abu Tawq (1723–1725)
- Uthman Pasha Abu Tawq (1725–1726)
- Köprülü Abdullah Pasha (1726/27–1728)
- Sulayman Pasha al-Azm (1728–1730)
- Ahmad Pasha Abu Tawq (1730–1734)
- Sa'deddin Pasha al-Azm (1734–1737)
- Ibrahim Pasha al-Azm (1737–1741)
- As'ad Pasha al-Azm (1741–1742)
- Yaqub Pasha (1742)
- Ibrahim Pasha al-Azm (1742–1744)
- Sa'deddin Pasha al-Azm (1744–1748)
- Uthman Pasha al-Muhassil (1748–1750)
- Mustafa Pasha al-Qawwas (1750–1752)
- Sa'deddin Pasha al-Azm (1752–1753)
- Mustafa Pasha al-Qawwas (1754–1755)
- Mustafa Pasha al-Azm (1755–1756)
- Sa'deddin Pasha al-Azm (1756–1759)
- Nu'man Pasha (1760–1763)
- Muhammad Pasha al-Azm (1763–1770)
- Darwish Pasha al-Kurji (1770–1771)
- Zahir al-Umar (1771–1775) (de facto)
- Rajab Pasha (1772) (de jure)
- Malak Muhammad Pasha (1775) (de jure)
- Jezzar Pasha (1775–1804)
- Sulayman Pasha al-Adil (1804–1819)
- Bashir Shihab (1819) (de facto)
- Abdullah Pasha (1820–1822)
- Darwish Mehmed Pasha (1822) (de jure)
- Mustafa Pasha (1822-1823) (de jure)
- Abdullah Pasha (1823-1832)
- Egyptian rule (27 May 1832 – 10 October 1840)
- Köse Ahmed Zekeriya Pasha (November 1840 – March 1841)
- Eneste/Haseki Mehmed Selim Pasha (March 1841 – December 1841)
- Izzet Ahmed Pasha (December 1841 – July 1842)
- Mustafa Pasha (1842)
- Selim Pasha (1842)
- Ömer Pasha (Mihaylo Lattas) (1842 – 7 December 1842)
- Ayasli Asad Mehmed Muhlis Pasha (August 1842 – 9 April 1845)
- Yozgatli Mehmed Vecihi Pasha (9 April 1845 – January 1846)
- Mühendis Mehmed Kamil Pasha (January 1846 – September 1847)
- Mustafa Sherifi Pasha (September 1847 – July 1848)
- Salih Vamık Pasha (August 1848 – September 1851; 1st term)
- Pepe Mehmed Emin Pasha (September 1851 – September 1852)
- Salih Vamık Pasha (September 1852 – March 1855; 2nd term)
- Mahmud Nedim Pasha (March 1855 – December 1855)
- Salih Vamık Pasha (December 1855 – July 1857; 3rd term)
- Arnavud Mehmed Kurshid Pasha (June 1857 – 17 July 1860)
- Fuad Pasha (17 July 1860 – 9 June 1861)
- Charles-Marie-Napoléon de Beaufort d'Hautpoul (16 August 1860 – 5 July 1861; de facto as part of the French expedition in Syria)
- Kayserili Ahmed Pasha (1860–1863)
- Mehmed Kabuli Pasha (1863–1864)
- Mehmed Kurshid Pasha (1864–1865)
Sidon Eyalet consisted of two sanjaks in the 17th century:
Sidon Eyalet consisted of seven sanjaks (districts) in the early 19th century:
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the sanjaq of Ṣafad, which was part of this province, remained under the suzerainty of Druze amīrs until 1660, when the Ottomans reorganized the province.
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