Gabriella Papadakis and Guillaume Cizeron ending their short dance at the 2018 European Figure Skating Championships in Moscow.

The short dance (SD) was the first segment of an ice dancing competition from the 2010–2011 to the 2017–2018 seasons. It was approved in June 2010 by the International Skating Union (ISU). It merged the original dance (OD) and compulsory dance (CD), which were both discontinued. The ISU re-named the short dance to the rhythm dance (RD) in 2018.

The SD was composed of two parts: the pattern dance (formerly known as the compulsory dance), which lasted about one minute and could be placed anywhere in the SD, and the creative section, which took up most of the SD. The pattern dance changed each year, and was announced beforehand by the ISU. The ISU also published yearly rule changes. Ice dancers were expected to perform five required elements in their SD: two segments of the pattern dance, one short lift, a step sequence, and a set of twizzles. At first, the duration of the SD was two minutes and 50 seconds; in 2016, it was changed to two minutes and 40 seconds. The first SD in international competitions was performed by U.S. junior ice dancers Anastasia Cannuscio and Colin McManus.

BackgroundEdit

The short dance (SD)/rhythm dance (RD) is the first segment performed in all junior and senior ice dance competitions, skated before the free dance (FD).[1] In 2010, the ISU, following the recommendation of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), changed the format of ice dance competitions to emulate the structure of the other figure skating disciplines. The ISU eliminated the compulsory dance (CD) and the original dance (OD) and replaced them with the SD.[2] In the 2018-19 season, the SD came to be known as the rhythm dance because according to the ISU, the new term "is better aligned with what the competition is all about".[3] According to International Figure Skating Magazine, the change was "in name only."[3]

There were two parts of the SD: the pattern dance section, which lasted about one minute and was placed anywhere in the SD, and the creative section, which took up most of the SD.[4] Pattern dance diagrams, published by the ISU, included everything ice dancers needed to know to perform one complete pattern, called a sequence, of the dance. Ice dancers could also choose to perform a set pattern dance, in which the direction, location, and curvature of all edges as designated in the diagram, and followed as closely as possible. They could also perform the optional pattern dance, a pattern dance which could be altered as long as the dancers maintained the original dance's step sequences, timing, and positions, and if each repetition was performed in the same way and was restarted from the same place as the first repetition.[5]

The SD combined many of the elements of the CD and the OD, while retaining the characteristic set patterns of the CD. Each dance team had to perform the same two patterns of a set pattern dance.[2] The set pattern dance section of the SD, which were determined by the ISU prior to the start of the new season, provided "an essential comparison of the dancers' technical skills".[2] The ice dance team was judged on how well the pattern dance was integrated into the entire SD routine. They were also judged on how well they integrated the creative section into their dance. The entire dance had to have a unified feeling, as well as "reflect the character of the selected dance rhythm(s) and be translated to the ice by demonstrating technical skill with steps and movements along with flow and the use of edges".[4] The music and choreography, provided that they reflected the specified pattern dance, were created and chosen by the ice dancers.[4]

The SD's required elements included a short, six-second lift, a set of twizzles, and a step sequence.[2][6] All rotations, turns, steps, and changes of hold were allowed, as long as they followed the music's rhythm. At first, the SD had a duration of two minutes and 50 seconds; in 2016, it was changed to two minutes and 40 seconds.[4][7]

The first SD in international competitions was performed by U.S. junior ice dancers Anastasia Cannuscio and Colin McManus, at the 2010 Junior Grand Prix Courchevel.[8]

RequirementsEdit

2010–11 seasonEdit

 
Meryl Davis and Charlie White perform their short dance at the 2011 World Championships

The 2010—2011 season was the first time the SD was contested, replacing the CD and OD.[2] The ISU published the new rules for the SD in June 2010, along with the season's compulsory pattern dances and rhythms.[9]

There were five required elements for both junior and senior dancers. Senior-level ice dancers were required to skate one segment of the Golden Waltz, which had to be divided into two sections. The range of tempo for the Golden Waltz was 3 beats per minute, they had to skate for 61—63 measures, and its entire sequence had to be performed. The Golden Waltz could be performed at any time during the SD, and not in sequential order; both sections were counted as two required elements. Junior-level skaters were required to perform two full sequences of the Viennese Waltz, anywhere during the SD, but one after another, and were also counted as two required elements.[10]

Seniors and juniors both had to use two rhythms of three possible choices (the Foxtrot, Quickstep, and Tango) in their creative section, but Seniors could use the same rhythm as the Golden Waltz. In addition to the elements in the pattern dance, the ice dancers had to perform a short lift, a midline step sequence in which they could have no contact with each other, and a set of sequential twizzles during their creative sections. They could perform up to two short lifts, but not more than two. They were allowed to make two full stops during their SD, lasting no more than 5 seconds. They could also perform a dance spin as part of their choreography, with as many rotations as they wished, although it was not a required element. The judges did not consider spins as one of the two permitted stops.[11]

2011–12 seasonEdit

In April 2011, the ISU published the rules for the 2011–12 season.[12]

Senior-level ice dancers were required, during the pattern dance section of the SD, to skate two sequences of the Rhumba anywhere in the program, not necessarily one after another. The range of tempo was 43 to 45 measures of four beats per minute (172-180 beats per minute) and had to be constant. Junior-level dances had to perform two sequences of the Cha Cha Congelado, skated anywhere in the program, one after the other. Their range of tempo, which also had to be constant, was 28 to 30 measures of four beats per minute (112-120 beats per minute). The rhythms for the creative section of the SD, for both juniors and senior dancers, were one to three choices from the Rhumba, Cha Cha, Samba, Mambo, and Merengue.[13]

In addition to the required pattern dances, competitors had three more required elements. They were required to perform one short lift; they could choose to add another six-second transitional dance lift after the required lift was completed. They also had to include one set of sequential twizzles. Finally, they had to perform a step sequence; for the juniors, a not-touching midline step sequence, and for the seniors, a not-touching circular step sequence. They could perform them either clockwise or counter-clockwise, but they had to use the full width of the surface of the ice, on the rink's short axis. Dancers could also perform a dance spin if they liked, although it was not a required element. The judges did not consider spins as one of the two permitted stops.[14]

2012–13 seasonEdit

 
Valeria Zenkova and Valerie Sinitsin perform their short dance at the 2012 Junior Grand Prix finals.

In March 2012, the ISU published the rules for the 2012–13 season.[15]

Senior-level ice dancers had to perform two sections of the Yankee Polka in their pattern dances, one after the other, with their first step beginning on the judges' side of the rink. Their range of tempo was "60 measures of two beats or 120 beats per minute, plus or minus 2 beats per minute".[16] Junior-level ice dancers had to skate two segments of a Blues Pattern Dance, one after the other or separately. Their range of tempo was "22 measures of four beats or 88 beats per minute, plus or minus 2 beats per minute".[16] The first step of each sequence of the junior ice dancers' pattern dance had to be skated on separate sides of the rink. Senior dancers could choose, for the creative section of their SD, one to three of the polka, march, and waltz rhythms, and their pattern dance had to be constant and follow the required tempo of the Yankee Polka. Junior dancers could choose, for their creative section, blues and either swing or hip hop. Their pattern dance tempo also had to be consistent with the required blues tempo.[17]

There were five required elements in the SD. Both junior and senior ice dancers had to skate two sections of their pattern dances. Their other three elements, for both juniors and seniors, were not more than one Short Dance Lift, either a Not-Touching Midline Step Sequence or a Not-Touching Circular Step Sequence, and one set of Sequential Twizzles. The Circular Step Sequence could either be performed in a clockwise or counter clockwise direction and had to take up the rink's full width, on its short axis. The Dance Spin was optional, could be used as a part of the dancers' choreography, and was not considered a stop.[18]

2013–14 seasonEdit

In March 2013, the ISU published the rules for the 2013–14 season.[19]

Senior ice dancers' required pattern dance was the Finnstep; they had to perform two sections, one after the other, with the first step on the judges' side of the rink. Their range of tempo was 104 beats per minute or 52 measures of two beats plus or minus two beats per minute. Their required rhythm was the Quickstep plus one or two more rhythms, from the possible choices of Foxtrot, Charleston, or Swing. Junior ice dancers' required pattern dance was the Quickstep; they also had to perform two sections, one after another or separately, with the first step of the each section skated on opposite side of the rink. Their required rhythm was the Quickstep and one more of their choices of the Foxtrot and Charleston. Their range of tempo was "56 measures of two beats or 112 beats per minute, plus or minus 2 beats per minute".[20] Both levels' choices of step sequences expanded to a not-touching diagonal step sequence. Senior ice dancers could have one full stop, and junior ice dancers could have up to two full stops.[21]

2014–15 seasonEdit

 
Madeline Edwards and Zhao Kai Pang perform their short dance at the 2014 Junior Grand Prix Final.

In April 2014, the ISU published the rules for the 2014–15 season.[22]

The required pattern dance for senior ice dancers was the Paso Doble; they had to skate one sequence, with the first step skated on the judges' left. They had to skate one full circuit of the rink, finishing where they started on the ice surface. They had to include a partial step sequence in hold during their pattern dance, for any exact number of four measures musical phrases. They were judged on specific key points in any dance hold, except the hand-in-hand hold with extended arms. They also had to remain in contact at all times, even during their one allowed stop and during changes in edges. They had to use the same piece of music in both the pattern dance and partial step sequence, and the music's tempo had to be constant with the Paso Doble (56 measures of two beats or 112 beats per minute, plus or minus two beats per minute). Senior dancers had to use Spanish Dance rhythms in the creative section of their SD. They could not cross the long axis of the ice surface, except during their partial step sequence.[23][24]

The required pattern dance for junior ice dancers was the Silver Samba; they had to skate two separate sections, and they had to skate the first step of each sequence on opposite sides of the rink. The elements of both the pattern dance and the partial step sequence "in strict time to the music with the start of the first Step of each Pattern Dance Element or Partial Step Sequence on beat 1 of a four measure musical phrase".[25] Junior dancers had to use, for their rhythms, the Samba plus one or two Latin American rhythms (the Rhumba, the Cha Cha, the Salsa, the Merengue, and the Salsa. Their range of tempo had to follow the tempo of the Samba (54 measures of two beats, or 108 beats per minute, plus or minus three beats per minute. They could not skate the long axis of the ice surface, except while performing the not-touching step sequence, the middle section of their pattern dance (steps 16 to 23), and the not-touching circular step sequence in the clockwise direction.[23]

Both senior and junior ice dancers had the following required elements: not more than one dance lift, a step sequence, and one set of sequential twizzles. Both had the option of performing a not-touching midline step sequence or a not-touching diagonal step sequence; plus, junior dancers could choose the not-touching circular step sequence.[25]

2015–16 seasonEdit

 
Madison Chock and Evan Bates perform their short dance at the 2015 Grand Prix Final.
 
Tessa Virtue and Scott Moir at the 2017 World Championships

In March 2015, the ISU published the rules for the 2015–16 season.[26]

Senior ice dancers were required to perform two sections of the Ravensburger Waltz for their pattern dance. Both senior and junior dancers had to use a Waltz for their rhythm dance, as well any number of Polka, March, and Foxtrot dances. The seniors' tempo during their pattern dance had to be constant and follow the required tempo of the Ravensburger Waltz (66 measures of three beats or 198 beats per minute, plus or minus three beats per minute). Their pattern had to have a "generally constant direction",[27] and they could not cross the long axis of the rink, except for once at the end of the rink, or when they performed the last half of the Ravensburger Waltz. Junior dancers, in addition to their Starlight Waltz pattern dance, had the same rhythms as the senior dancers. Juniors' tempo also had to be constant and follow the required tempo of the Starlight Waltz (58 measures of three beats or 174 beats per minute, plus or minus three beats per minute). Junior ice dancers had the same requirements about crossing the rink as the seniors did, except for during their not-touching step sequence and their not-touching circular step sequence.[28]

Senior ice dancers only could use one full stop, as long as it did not exceed 10 seconds. Junior dancers could use two full stops, but they could only last five seconds each. In addition to the two required sections of their pattern dances, both levels had to perform not more than one short lift. Seniors had to perform one partial step sequence in hold, for four measure musical phrases and in one full circuit around the rink, immediately after their required stop. Juniors were required to perform one not-touching midline, circular, or diagonal step sequence. Both levels also had to perform one set of sequential twizzles.[28]

2016–17 seasonEdit

In April 2016, the ISU published the rules for the 2016–17 season.[29] The duration of the SP was changed to two minutes and 40 seconds.[7]

Senior ice dancers had to skate one segment of the Midnight Blues for their pattern dance; they had to begin it at Step #5, on the opposite side of the rink from the judges. They had to skate in a constant tempo and follow the required tempo and character of the Midnight Blues (22 measures of four beats or 88 beats per minute, plus or minus two beats per minute). Their required rhythm was Blues, plus one more rhythm, either Swing or Hip Hop. Their not-touching step sequence had to be performed to either Swing or Hip Hop. They could not cross the long axis of the ice surface, except while performing the not-touching circular step sequence in the clockwise direction or the not-touching midline, diagonal, or circular step sequence. They could also perform one loop crossing the long axis in order to connect their pattern dance elements.[30]

Junior ice dancers had to skate two segments of the Blues Dance for their required pattern dance, skated one after the other; they had to skate each sequence on the different sides of the rink.[31] They were also required to use a Blues tempo plus one or more of either Swing or Hip Hop. Their tempo also had to be constant and follow the same tempo and character as the senior dancers. They had to use Swing or Hip Hop rhythms while performing their not-touching step sequence.[7]

The ISU stated, about ice dancers' use of Hip Hop, "To comply with the ethical values of sports, Hip-Hop music chosen for Ice Dance competitions must not include aggressive and/or offending lyrics".[32] It also stated that if a junior ice dance team chose Hip Hop as their rhythm, the requirement that dancers not touch the ice during their SD would be waived, if it fit the choreography of the dance, and would not be counted as a fall.[32]

The other requirements for the SD were not more than one short dance lift, a step sequence, and one set of sequential twizzles. Senior ice dancers had to perform one partial step sequence in hold, and it had to follow the Midnight Blues Rhythm, for any number of musical measures they chose; both junior and senior dancers had to include one not-touching midline, diagonal, or circular step sequence skated to a different rhythm than the Blues.[31]

2017–18 seasonEdit

 
Viktoria Kavaliova and Yuri Bieliaiev perform their short dance.

In March 2017, the ISU published the rules for the 2017–18 season.[33]

Senior ice dancers had to skate one segment of the Rhumba for their pattern dance; their first step had to be done on the left side of the judges. They also had to skate the first 16 steps of the dance, immediately followed by repeating the first four steps. Their tempo had to be constant, retain the style of the dance's rhythm, and remain within 172—180 beats per minute. They were able to choose from the following rhythms: Rhumba, Mambo, Cha Cha, Salsa, Meringe, Samba, Bachata, or any other related Latin American Rhythm. They had to include a pattern dance-type step sequence, skated to a different rhythm than what they chose for the touching step sequence, and had to be in a constant tempo. Junior ice dancers had to skate two segments of the Cha Cha Congelado pattern dance, one after the other, and starting on the opposite side of the judges. They had to perform the dance in a constant tempo, follow the style of the Cha Cha, and remain within 28 to 30 measures of four beats per minute, or 112—120 beats per minute. They could use the same rhythms as the senior dancers. The juniors had to use a different rhythm during their pattern dance-type step sequence.[34]

Both levels' pattern dances had to have a "generally constant direction".[33] They could not cross the long axis of the rink, except during the following conditions: performing the diagonal, circular, or not-touching midline step sequences; at the entry to the pattern dance element; at either the entry into or exit out of the not-touching step sequence; and while performing the not-touching circular step sequence in the clockwise direction. Both levels also had the same stop requirements; they could have up to two full stops, not over five seconds each, or up to one full stop, not over 10 seconds. The ISU delineated the acceptable permitted stops for both senior and junior ice dancers. A traveling choreographed spin was not considered a stop.[33]

In addition to the two required elements in the pattern dance, ice dancers had to perform not more than one short lift, one step sequence, and one set of sequential twizzles. Seniors had to perform one Patter Dance-type step sequence in hold. Both levels had to perform one straight-line step sequence (either midline or diagonal) or one curved step sequence (either circular or serpentine).[35] The dance spin was not a required element, but was permitted and could be used as part of the SD's choreography. If senior dancers performed a spin within their pattern dance-type step sequence, it was counted as one of their permitted stops. If either seniors or juniors performed a dance spin during the not-touching step sequence, lasting up to five seconds, it was also considered a permitted stop.[36]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ ISU No. 1621, p. 6
  2. ^ a b c d e "Partnered Ice Dancing Events". Ice Skating Information & Resources. San Diego Figure Skating Communications. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  3. ^ a b Walker, Elvin (19 September 2018). "New Season New Rules". International Figure Skating. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d ISU No. 1621, p. 8
  5. ^ S&P/ID, p. 119
  6. ^ Zuckerman, Esther (14 February 2014). "A Quick GIF Guide to Ice Dance". The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  7. ^ a b c ISU No. 1998, p. 2
  8. ^ Brown, Mickey (28 August 2010). "Team USA scores four medals at JGP opener". icenetwork.com. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  9. ^ ISU No. 1621, p. 1
  10. ^ ISU No. 1621, pp. 8—9
  11. ^ ISU No. 1621, pp. 10—12
  12. ^ ISU No. 1670, p.6
  13. ^ ISU No. 1670, pp. 2—3
  14. ^ ISU No. 1670, pp. 3—4
  15. ^ ISU No. 1721, p. 8
  16. ^ a b ISU No. 1721, p. 2
  17. ^ ISU No. 1721, pp. 2-3
  18. ^ ISU No. 1721, p. 4
  19. ^ ISU No. 1782, p. 4
  20. ^ ISU No. 1782, p. 2
  21. ^ ISU No. 1782, pp. 2—4
  22. ^ ISU No. 1875, p. 8
  23. ^ a b ISU No. 1875, pp. 2—4
  24. ^ Kany, Klaus-Reinhold (14 July 2014). "New rules will change the look of ice dance next season". icenetwork.com. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  25. ^ a b ISU No. 1875, p. 4
  26. ^ ISU No. 1932, p. 8
  27. ^ ISU No. 1932, p. 2
  28. ^ a b ISU No. 1932, pp. 2—4
  29. ^ ISU No. 1998, p. 8
  30. ^ ISU No. 1998, p. pp. 2-4
  31. ^ a b ISU No. 1998, p. 4
  32. ^ a b ISU No. 1998, p. 3
  33. ^ a b c ISU No. 2076, p. 3
  34. ^ ISU No. 2076, pp. 2—4
  35. ^ ISU No. 2076, p. 4
  36. ^ ISU No. 2076, p. 5

Works citedEdit