Seventh-day Adventist eschatology

The Seventh-day Adventist Church holds a unique system of eschatological (or end-times) beliefs. Adventist eschatology, which is based on a historicist interpretation of prophecy, is characterised principally by the premillennial Second Coming of Christ. Traditionally, the church has taught that the Second Coming will be preceded by a global crisis with the Sabbath as a central issue.[1] At Jesus' return, the righteous will be taken to heaven for one thousand years. After the millennium the unsaved cease to exist as they will be punished by annihilation while the saved will live on a recreated Earth for eternity.

Diagram of Adventist eschatology in the book Bible Readings for the Home Circle (1888).

The foremost sources are the biblical books of Daniel and Revelation. Jesus' statements in Matthew 24 for instance, as well as many other Bible verses are also used. The classic Adventist commentary on the end-times was Uriah Smith's Daniel and the Revelation. The writings of Ellen G. White have also been highly influential, particularly the last part of her book The Great Controversy. "Prophecy seminars", developed since the mid-20th century, have been a key popular source.

Basis edit

Fundamental beliefs edit

The eschatological teachings of the Seventh-day Adventist Church are summarized in the final five of the denomination's 28 fundamental beliefs:[2]

24. Christ's Ministry in the Heavenly Sanctuary
25. Second Coming of Christ
26. Death and Resurrection
27. Millennium and the End of Sin
28. New Earth

According to a 1985 survey, 29% of North American Adventist lecturers nominated eschatology as the area of greatest contribution by Adventists to then-current theology. This ranked second only to wholism.[3]

Biblical basis and perspectives edit

Seventh-day Adventism derives its eschatological teachings in large part from its interpretation of the apocalyptic Bible books of Daniel and Revelation, as well as Jesus' end-times sermon found in Matthew 24, Mark 13, and Luke 21. Mainstream Adventism interprets biblical prophecies using the historicist method,[4] which utilises the day-year principle; some of the prophecies of Revelation are yet to be fulfilled.

A 2004 official statement remarks: Adventists' "sense of identity and calling grows from an understanding of Bible prophecies, especially those concerning the time immediately preceding the return of Jesus."[5]

Hermeneutics edit

Adventists believe the Christian church is the historical continuation of the Old Testament Israel as God's people, centered around Jesus, and that Old Testament end-time prophecies about Israel will be fulfilled more broadly.[6] (This stands in contrast to dispensationalism, a popular conservative Christian view, which sees a prominent place for the nation of Israel in the end-times). Adventist hermeneutics categorically rejects preterism, futurism and idealism as proper hermeneutical systems of interpretation of Bible prophecy.

Ellen White and SDA pioneers edit

The writings of Ellen G. White have been highly influential in the formation of Seventh-day Adventist eschatology, particularly the final chapters of her book The Great Controversy.

The classic interpretation was Uriah Smith's book, known by its abbreviated title as Daniel and the Revelation. It was affirmed by Ellen White,[7] "and had an unrivaled influence on [Adventist] prophetic teaching."[8] It was based on his earlier works Thoughts, Critical and Practical, on the Book of Revelation (1867), and Thoughts, Critical and Practical, on the Book of Daniel (1873).[9] The book was revised several times during Smith's life and afterwards.[8] The Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia states, "Although a creative writer, he also borrowed from contemporary and early expositors for his materials, especially in his interpretations of prophecy."[8]

Historicist interpretation of prophecy edit

Prophecies of Daniel edit

Adventists teach that Historicism (including the day-year principle) is the correct viewpoint in interpretation, as well as the traditional belief of the almost all Protestant Reformers.[10][11] Historicism as a method of interpreting prophecy has been challenged by some interpreters.[4][12]

Image of Daniel 2 edit

The background to Adventist eschatology is found in the book of Daniel, which has strong thematic and literary links to Revelation. A key passage is the interpretation of king Nebuchadnezzar's vision of a statue in Daniel 2. The sequence of world kingdoms is interpreted by Adventists as representing in turn Babylonia, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome (pagan Rome and later papal Rome).[13] The feet of iron and clay in the vision are understood to represent the nations of Europe subsequent to the breakup of the Roman empire.[14] The Seventh-day Adventists follow the Historicist interpretation of the statue.

Chapter Parallel sequence of prophetic elements as understood by SDA Historicists[15][16]
Past Present Future
Daniel 2 Head
Chest & 2 arms
Belly and thighs
2 Legs
(Pagan Rome &
Papal Rome)
Feet & Toes
Clay & Iron
(Present Global Power)
God's unending kingdom
left to no other people

This interpretation is not unique to Adventists and was held by many expositors in the 18th and 19th centuries.[17]

Since iron and clay are materials that cannot form a durable structure, Adventist scholars interpret this as the many short-lived attempts throughout European history to form a large empire such as the Holy Roman Empire, Napoleonic France, Nazi Germany, The European Union.

Chapter 7 - The 4 beasts and Judgement edit

Paraphrase of the prophecy of Daniel 7 by arranging prophecy phrases parallel to given interpretation.

Survey of prophecy

This survey section consists of paraphrases and quotations of the significant texts. During the reign of Belshazzar, the last king of Babylon, Daniel experiences a dream or vision.[18] It has been fifty years since the vision of chapter 2.[19]

Comparison of Daniel 2, 7 and 8 edit

Chapter Parallel sequence of prophetic elements as understood by Historicists[15][16]
Past Present Future
Daniel 2 Head
Chest &
2 arms
Belly and thighs
2 Legs
2 Feet with toes
Clay & Iron
God's unending kingdom
left to no other people
Daniel 7 Winged Lion Lopsided Bear 4 Headed /
4 Winged
Iron toothed beast
w/Little Horn
Judgment scene
Beast slain
A son of man comes in clouds
Given everlasting dominion
He gives it to the saints.[20]
Daniel 8 2-horned Ram
Uni- / 4-horned Goat
4 Winds (Greece)
Little Horn
A Master of Intrigue
Cleansing of Sanctuary
Leads to:
(Kingdom of God)

Eschatological events edit

In traditional mainstream Adventist teaching, the end times consists of four distinct episodes:

Timeline of eschatological events in traditional Seventh-day Adventist teaching.

Events prior to 1844 edit

The Roman Empire was a world power active during the ministry of Jesus. Adventists believe the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 was a partial fulfillment of Jesus' end-times discourse in Matthew 24.

The empire continued several centuries into the Christian era, when it was ultimately replaced by the papacy. The papacy is identified with the "man of sin" of 2 Thessalonians, the "Antichrist" of 1 John and the "little horn" of Daniel chapters 7 and 8.[21] It is believed that the Roman Catholic religion grew into a corruption of original, authentic Christianity. Among other things, it is considered to have changed the church's day of worship from Saturday to Sunday.

The "1,260 days", "42 months" or "time, times and dividing of time" of apocalyptic prophecy are equated, and are interpreted as 1260 years, based on the day-year principle. This has traditionally been held to be the period AD 538 to 1798, as the era of papal supremacy and oppression as prophesied in Revelation 12:6, 14–16.[22][23] This period began with the defeat of the Ostrogoths by the Roman General Belisarius. In Adventist belief, this was the last of three Germanic tribes (including also the Heruli and the Vandals) to be defeated by Rome (see Daniel 7:20, Daniel 7:24 and other passages). The period ended with the successes of Napoleon of France; specifically, the capture of Pope Pius VI by General Louis Alexandre Berthier in 1798, which was a blow to the papacy. This capture of the pope by the French army was understood as the "deadly wound" of Revelation 13:3.[24][25] Today many Adventist scholars believe the end-points cannot be given precisely, because the history was more of a gradual rise and fall; however the mainstream view does support a period of 1260 years.[26] A minority view by Samuele Bacchiocchi is that the rise to "supremacy" and the "downfall" of the papacy are events spanning a larger time, and cannot be pinned to such points in time.[27]

After the end of the 1260 days, and prior to 1844, several significant events took place. In 1755 a massive earthquake hit Lisbon. On May 19, 1780, northeastern America experienced a day of extraordinary darkness followed by a blood-red moon that night. On November 13, 1833, a spectacular Leonids meteor shower occurred. These three events were thought to be a fulfillment of Revelation 6:12, paving the way for the final events of history.[28]

Three Angels' Messages edit

During the 1830s and 1840s the Millerite movement proclaimed the soon return of Jesus. Adventists have traditionally interpreted this as the initial proclamation of the three angels' messages.

The Investigative judgment edit

The investigative judgment commenced in 1844 "at the end of the prophetic period of 2300 days".[2] During this time, Jesus Christ is believed to be ministering in the Most Holy Place of the heavenly sanctuary, "blotting out" the sins of all who are found to truly believe in him. Meanwhile, on earth, the remnant church proclaims the "three angels' messages" of Revelation 14; it "announces the arrival of the judgment hour, proclaims salvation through Christ, and heralds the approach of His second advent." As a result, there is "a work of repentance and reform on earth."[2]

The completion of the investigative judgment marks the "close of probation". In Adventist teaching, this is a crucial moment when sinners will no longer be able to repent and be forgiven, because Christ will have ceased his intercessory ministry.

Then Jesus ceases His intercession in the sanctuary above. He lifts His hands and with a loud voice says, "It is done;" and all the angelic host lay off their crowns as He makes the solemn announcement: "He that is unjust, let him be unjust still: and he which is filthy, let him be filthy still: and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still: and he that is holy, let him be holy still." Revelation 22:11. Every case has been decided for life or death."

— Ellen G. White, The Great Controversy[29]

The time of trouble edit

1863 prophetic chart including the beasts of Revelation interpreted as paganism, the papacy and Protestantism
Note: This section describes the traditional view of the church.

Following the close of probation will be a "time of trouble," a brief but intense period of time immediately preceding the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. Adventists believe the Roman Catholic Church will return to prominence during the end times, fulfilling the prophecy of the first beast of Revelation 13 (the leopard-like beast from the sea) whose "deadly wound" (i.e. the deposal of the Pope in 1798) will be healed.[30][31] The United States of America, meanwhile, will establish ties with the Papacy, in fulfilment of the second beast of Revelation 13 (the lamb-like beast from the earth).[32] Some of the more liberal Adventists do not share these convictions about the Roman Catholic Church, or are more cautious.[33] (J. N. Andrews was the first Adventist to identify America in prophecy, in 1851).[34]

Ultimately, the Protestant churches of America will join the confederation between the beasts, forming the "image to the beast" (Revelation 13:14–15). At this time, a conflict will ensue that will "involve the whole world," and in which "the central issue will be obedience to God's law and the observance of the Sabbath."[35] Religious and civil authorities will combine to enact a "Sunday law" which requires all people to observe Sunday as a sacred day. The "Sunday law" is interpreted as the meaning of the "mark of the beast" described in Revelation 13:16–17.[36][37]

In contrast to those who choose to obey the "Sunday law," and therefore receive the "mark of the beast," people who observe the seventh-day Sabbath will receive the "Seal of God" (mentioned in Revelation 7:2ff.).[38] Sabbath keepers will experience fierce persecution from world governments, which will include economic coercion and ultimately the death penalty.[39]

As the Sabbath has become the special point of controversy throughout Christendom, and religious and secular authorities have combined to enforce the observance of the Sunday, the persistent refusal of a small minority to yield to the popular demand will make them objects of universal execration. It will be urged that the few who stand in opposition to an institution of the church and a law of the state ought not to be tolerated; that it is better for them to suffer than for whole nations to be thrown into confusion and lawlessness. ... This argument will appear conclusive; and a decree will finally be issued against those who hallow the Sabbath of the fourth commandment, denouncing them as deserving of the severest punishment and giving the people liberty, after a certain time, to put them to death. Romanism in the Old World and apostate Protestantism in the New will pursue a similar course toward those who honor all the divine precepts.

— Ellen G. White, The Great Controversy[29]

Despite being almost overwhelmed by persecution, the people of God will be delivered by the second coming of Jesus Christ, when he returns to earth in glory.

The "time of trouble" has also been known as the "Time of Jacob's Trouble," described as "a brief period of extreme tribulation" just before the Second Coming, and after the close of probation. It is contemporaneous with the seven last plagues. The term comes from Jeremiah 30:7, and is based on the narrative of Jacob's wrestling with God in Genesis 32:22–30, and Jeremiah's description of Israel's captivity in Babylonia prior to the predicted liberation in Jeremiah 30 verses 3, 7–9, 11.[40]

Recent arguments claim an allusion from Revelation 14:7 in the three angels' messages to Exodus 20:11 in the fourth of the Ten Commandments. Thus in the end time, the battle over worship will include the Sabbath.[41]

The Second Coming edit

Seventh-day Adventists believe the Second Coming of Jesus will be literal, personal, sudden and universally visible. The second coming coincides with the resurrection and translation of the righteous, as described in 1 Thessalonians 4:16.[42] (See fundamental belief number 25.)

Adventists reject an intermediate state between death and resurrection, and hold that the soul sleeps until the resurrection of the body at Christ's coming. They also reject the doctrine of the pretribulational rapture. The Seventh-day Adventist Church does not hold the traditional view of the premillennial and none of the postmillennial schools of end-time belief. As both of these schools believe that Christ will literally and physically be on the earth at his second coming. In contrast to this Adventism teaches that the righteous will rise up and meet Christ in the air at His second coming and are taken with Him to Heaven.[43]

The Millennium edit

The Second Coming of Jesus Christ marks the beginning of the Millennium, according to Adventist teaching. At the second coming, the righteous dead will be resurrected (the "first resurrection", Revelation 20:5), and both they and the righteous living will be taken to heaven to reign with Christ for 1000 years. The rest of mankind (the wicked, or unrighteous) will be killed at the second coming, leaving the earth devoid of human life.

During the millennium, Satan and his angels will occupy the desolate earth; this is how Adventists interpret the "binding" of Satan described in chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation. The millennium will be the time when the wicked will be judged. Satan and his angels will be loosed at the end of the millennium when the wicked, or unrighteous are brought back to life to face judgement.

The destruction of sinners and new earth edit

At the close of the Millennium, Adventists believe that Christ will again return to earth together with the righteous and the "Holy City" (the New Jerusalem, Revelation 21:10) to implement His judgment on the wicked. He will then raise the wicked (the "second resurrection"), who will surround the New Jerusalem along with Satan. At this point Satan, his angels, and wicked humanity will suffer annihilation in the Lake of Fire ("the second death", Revelation 20:8). Adventists disagree with the traditional doctrine of hell as a place of conscious eternal punishment.

Finally, God will create a new earth where the redeemed will enjoy eternal life free of sin and suffering.

Additional interpretations edit

Ellen White's book (The Great Controversy) has been a frequent evangelistic handout. While much of it presents Christian and Adventist church history, the later chapters describe end-time events. Her views expressed in the book represent the mainstream opinion in Adventism. Some alternative views about eschatology have been proposed by individuals and groups in the Adventist church.[44]

Critics[45][46] have written on issues regarding the book The Great Controversy.[47] One critic has stated "There can be little doubt that the Roman church courted much of the antagonism it received." [...] "incredibly arrogant and contemptuous of democratic principles" in the U.S. "The Roman Catholic Church of those days was a contemptuous and contemptible organization, rightly perceived as a threat to the nation and the world." "But those days are over. The world has changed. The United States has changed. And even the Roman Catholic church has changed, in the second half of our century, having reconciled itself with progress, liberalism and modern civilization. It is no longer the Bible-suppressing, science-resisting, liberty-opposing, Protestant-hating, culture-ignoring, Latin-mumbling, obscurantism-loving ecclesiastical organization of former years, intent on ruling the world from Rome. Vatican Council II transformed all that."[48]

However Ellen White stated...

The Roman Church now presents a fair front to the world, covering with apologies her record of horrible cruelties. She has clothed herself in Christlike garments; but she is unchanged. Every principle of the papacy that existed in past ages exists today. The doctrines devised in the darkest ages are still held. Let none deceive themselves. The papacy that Protestants are now so ready to honor is the same that ruled the world in the days of the Reformation, when men of God stood up, at the peril of their lives, to expose her iniquity. She possesses the same pride and arrogant assumption that lorded it over kings and princes, and claimed the prerogatives of God. Her spirit is no less cruel and despotic now than when she crushed out human liberty and slew the saints of the Most High.

— The Great Controversy, Ellen White, p. 571

Opinions vary in regards to this topic.[49][50]

Prophetic interpretation of Revelation edit

Traditionally, Adventists interpret the letters to the seven churches of Asia in Revelation 2 and 3 as fulfilled in consecutive periods of church history.

According to mainstream Adventist thought, prophecies usually have only a single fulfillment. For instance Gerhard Hasel argued apocalyptic prophecy has only "one fulfillment for each symbol." "General" or "classical" prophecy may have dual or multiple fulfillments only if Scripture itself points to this, for instance with the virgin birth (Isaiah 7:14 / Matthew 1:22–23), and the latter rain (Joel 2 / Acts 2).[51] In contrast, a minority have argued for multiple fulfillments of other prophecies.[52] Some Progressive Adventists advocate multiple diverse possible fulfillments of prophecy, and some try to include Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the Seleucid king who conquered Israel, as a preliminary fulfillment. Most Adventists disagree with this.[27][53]

The themes of Revelation are heavily grounded in the Old Testament, so Adventist scholarship first looks to this background before attempting interpretation. The context and overall literary structure are important for interpretation. For instance Revelation is not always chronological (e.g. Jesus' death in Revelation 12:10,11 cannot follow 11:15 where He reigns; and Babylon's activities in chapter 17 cannot follow its destruction in chapter 16), but many visions are parallel, and progressively illuminate themes. In addition to parallels, there are contrasts such as the Lamb and the beast; and the seal of God and the mark of the beast. Revelation shows a typological connection between ancient Israel's history, and church history.[54]

Cosmic signs edit

A famous depiction of the 1833 meteor storm, produced in 1889 for the Seventh-day Adventist book Bible Readings for the Home Circle

Great cosmic signs have traditionally been interpreted as the fulfillment of Bible prophecy and signs of the nearing Second Coming, such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake in Portugal,[55] New England's Dark Day of 1780,[56] and a spectacular meteor shower in 1833.[57] This is based on the sixth seal (Revelation 6:12–17) of the "seven seals", and Jesus' end-times sermon in Matthew 24:29 and Mark 13:24–25 (see also Luke 21). Adventists had argued the Dark Day was a supernatural sign. Critics claim that it occurred from natural causes due to forest fires.[58] The interpretations are still commonly held by Adventist, although some have challenged the interpretations.[59][60]

Some[who?] state there were bigger earthquakes before Lisbon[original research?]. Still, they remain highly significant events in history. They believe people were led to God, and these are preliminary signs, but not the ultimate cosmic signs bring in the Second Coming.[61][62]

Many believe their occurrence towards the end of papal supremacy (1798) is significant, and that the order of events matches the biblical prediction.[63] Some believe the context of Jesus' end-times sermon indicates the period stretches from the destruction of Jerusalem (AD 70) to the seven last plagues prior to the Second Coming.[61] Jon Paulien claims they are signs of the age, not signs of the end; they do instruct us to keep watch.[64] The events are the "day of the Lord" foretold in Old Testament prophecy.

Spiritualism edit

Ellen White was critical of spiritualism (which she believed to be communication with evil spirits). Many Adventists see the spreading social acceptance of the belief in evil spirits and their powers such as in witchcraft, the occult, as evidenced in the prominent films, books, and society along with the spread of Spiritual Formation in modern-day churches, and the acceptance of communicating with spirits in modern-day churches in Montanism style movements which have emerged from the late 19th century as an indication of the fulfillment of the prediction.

World empires edit

The traditional teaching is that Rome was the last world empire prophesied in Daniel 2 and 7, which divides up into the nations of Europe.[14] On the other hand, one historian claimed several subsequent empires which have been larger, including the Byzantine, Arab and Ottoman empires.[65]

Adventists predicted that in WWII, Hitler's forces would not conquer Europe, based on Daniel 2:43 which states the toes of the statue [interpreted as the nations of Europe] would not remain united.

Ottoman Empire edit

In 1838, Millerite preacher Josiah Litch had predicted the fall of the Ottoman Empire in August 1840, based on Revelation 9.[66] This was regarded as being fulfilled on August 11, 1840, when Turkey responded to an ultimatum by European powers, which affirmed the Millerites' beliefs. [Note: this occurred during the Millerite movement before the start of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, of which Litch did not become a member].[67]

New World Order edit


Eschatological expectations have prompted some Adventists to closely observe current geopolitical events, in a manner similar to many Christian futurists and dispensationalists. Illinois pastor A. Jan Marcussen has predicted the imminent rise of a global church-state alliance with the Papacy and U.S. Government as key players, along with other bodies such as the United Nations and the International Monetary Fund. The resulting New World Order would precipitate the final events of history: the "sealing" of Sabbath-keepers, a universal Sunday-law, the seven last plagues and Armageddon.[68]

"Not only does the Bible not predict one world government before the kingdom of God; it denies it. "Just as you saw that the feet and toes were partly of baked clay and partly of iron, so this will be a divided kingdom" (Daniel 2:41). The Bible does however warn of "an alliance between church and state (see Revelation 17:3ff)."[69]

"The prophecy of Revelation 13 declares that the power represented by the beast with lamblike horns shall cause "the earth and them which dwell therein" to worship the papacy—there symbolised by the beast "like unto a leopard."[70]

He was granted power to give breath to the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak and cause as many as would not worship the image of the beast to be killed. He causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

— Revelation 13:15-17 NKJV

The beast with two horns is also to say "to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast;" and, furthermore, it is to command all, "both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond," to receive the mark of the beast. Revelation 13:11-16. It has been shown that the United States is the power represented by the beast with lamblike horns,[71] and that this prophecy will be fulfilled when the United States shall enforce Sunday observance,[72] which Rome claims as the special acknowledgement of her supremacy. But in this homage to the papacy the United States will not be alone. The influence of Rome in the countries that once acknowledged her dominion is still far from being destroyed. And prophecy foretells a restoration of her power. "I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast." Verse 3. The infliction of the deadly wound points to the downfall of the papacy in 1798. After this, says the prophet, "his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast." Paul states plainly that the "man of sin" will continue until the second advent. 2 Thessalonians 2:3-8. To the very close of time he will carry forward the work of deception. And the revelator declares, also referring to the papacy: "All that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life." Revelation 13:8. The papacy will receive homage in the honour paid to the Sunday institution, that rests solely upon the authority of the Roman Church."[73]

Antichrist edit

For the mainstream view, see Day of the Dragon by Clifford Goldstein.

Seventh-day Adventists teach that the office of the papacy is the Antichrist, a belief so widely held by Protestants that it became known as the "Protestant view" of prophetic interpretation.[74][75][76] In 1798, the French General Berthier exiled the Pope and took away all his authority, which was later restored in 1929. This is taken as a fulfillment of the prophecy that the Beast of Revelation would receive a deadly wound but that the wound would be healed. Adventists have attributed the wounding and resurgence in Revelation 13:3 to the papacy, referring to General Louis Berthier's capture of Pope Pius VI in 1798 and the pope's subsequent death in 1799.

A minority view by Samuele Bacchiocchi has suggested expanding the Antichrist concept to include also Islam. However the majority Adventist view today disagrees and holds to the traditional Adventist view of the papacy as the Antichrist.[77][78]

Roman Catholicism edit

Modern "mainstream" Adventist literature continues to express the traditional Adventist teaching that Roman Catholicism, in coalition with other churches, will perpetrate religious oppression during a final end-time crisis, and that the Sabbath will be a key issue.

Seventh-day Adventists are convinced of the validity of our prophetic views, according to which humanity now lives close to the end of time. Adventists believe, on the basis of biblical predictions, that just prior to the second coming of Christ this earth will experience a period of unprecedented turmoil, with the seventh-day Sabbath as a focal point. In that context, we expect that world religions--including the major Christian bodies as key players--will align themselves with the forces in opposition to God and to the Sabbath. Once again the union of church and state will result in widespread religious oppression.

666: Vicarius Filii Dei edit

Revelation 13: VERSE 18. “Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast; for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six." Some Adventists have interpreted the number of the beast, 666, as corresponding to the title Vicarius Filii Dei of the Pope. In 1866, Uriah Smith became the first to propose this interpretation to the Seventh-day Adventist Church.[79] See Review and Herald 28:196, November 20, 1866. In The United States in the Light of Prophecy, he wrote,

The pope wears upon his pontifical crown in jeweled letters, this title: "Vicarius Filii Dei," "Viceregent of the Son of God;" the numerical value of which title is just six hundred and sixty-six The most plausible supposition we have ever seen on this point is that here we find the number in question. It is the number of the beast, the papacy; it is the number of his name, for he adopts it as his distinctive title; it is the number of a man, for he who bears it is the "man of sin."[80]

Prominent Adventist scholar J. N. Andrews also adopted this view.[81] Uriah Smith maintained his interpretation in the various editions of Thoughts on Daniel and the Revelation, which was influential in the church.[79] The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary states, "Whether the inscription Vicarius Filii Dei appears on the tiara or the mitre is really beside the point. The title is admittedly applied to the pope, and that is sufficient for the purposes of prophecy.[82] Various documents from the Vatican contain wording such as "Adorandi Dei Filii Vicarius, et Procurator quibus numen aeternum summam Ecclesiae sanctae dedit",[83] which translates as is "As the worshipful Son of God's Vicar and Caretaker, to whom the eternal divine will has given the highest rank of the holy Church".

Samuele Bacchiocchi an Adventist scholar, and only Adventist to be awarded a gold medal by Pope Paul VI for the distinction of summa cum laude (Latin for "with highest praise").[84] has documented the pope using such a title.[85][86]

We noted that contrary to some Catholic sources who deny the use of Vicarius Filii Dei as a papal title, we have found this title to have been used in official Catholic documents to support the ecclesiastical authority and temporal sovereignty of the pope. Thus the charge that Adventists fabricated the title to support their prophetic interpretation of 666, is unfair and untrue.

— ' Samuele Bacchiocchi,[87] slide 116

The Adult Sabbath School Lesson for April–June 2002, principally authored by Ángel Rodríguez, cast doubt on the early interpretation, instead advocating a symbolic interpretation of "intensified rebellion, six used three times, and total independence from God". see Adult Sabbath School Lesson for April–June 2002. See lesson 10 (June 1–7), "The Dragon Versus the Remnant Part 2"; particularly the studies for Thursday and Friday. The quarterly topic was "Great Apocalyptic Prophecies".

Sunday law edit

Traditionally, Adventists teach that right at the end times the message of the Ten Commandments and in particular the keeping of the seventh day of the week, Saturday, as Sabbath will be conveyed to the whole world and there will be a reaction from those who hold to Sunday as the day of worship. Adventists have taught that a persecuting "Sunday law" will be enacted at some stage in the future, as part of the final events of earth's history before Jesus returns, as stated in significant publications such as Questions on Doctrine (1957),[88] Seventh-day Adventists Believe… (1988),[89] and Ellen White's classic The Great Controversy.[90] Jon Paulien has argued for a parallel between Revelation 14 and the fourth of the Ten Commandments (the Sabbath), in Exodus 20. He hence argues the Bible features Sabbath in the end-times.

Some progressive Adventists,[91] including a few scholars,[92] disagree with specific traditional views about the "time of trouble.".

Armageddon edit

Adventists believe in a future final battle prior to Jesus' return.

This battle is termed "Armageddon" in Revelation 16:16, a term which occurs only once in the Bible. It derives from the Hebrew for "Mountain of Megiddo", and occurs only in Revelation 16:16 in the Bible. Modern Adventist scholarship believes it refers not to a physical battle in the Middle East, but is a metaphor for a spiritual battle. There is no mountain called "Megiddo", but the city Megiddo, now ruined, lies in the Jezreel Valley, at the foot of Mount Carmel which was the site of Elijah's conflict with the prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18). Based in this imagery, Armageddon is understood as a worldwide 'spiritual' battle – a battle for the mind. Paulien believes it is not literal fire, and not literally on Carmel, but likely false prophets and false Christs performing miracles in the world (Matthew 24:24). The Euphrates river is equated with the "many waters" the prostitutes sits on, which the Bible identifies as peoples, multitudes, nations, and languages. Thus the drying of the river is the removal of the political powers supporting Babylon.[93] (Earlier, Uriah Smith viewed the drying of the Euphrates river (Revelation 16:12) as the shrinking of Turkey, the nation occupying most of the river; however today this is Iraq. He saw Armageddon as a literal battle at Megiddo in Israel due to its strategic military location, and the three unclean spirits as spiritism.[94])

Sources edit

Prophecy Seminars edit

A "prophecy seminar" is a common form of outreach used by Adventist ministers, in which Bible prophecies such as those in the books of Daniel and Revelation are presented.

In 1969 George Knowles developed a small group seminar. He joined It Is Written, and together with George Vandeman prepared a day-long seminar, which developed into the It Is Written Revelation Seminar by 1975. Soon others ran their own seminars. A resource center founded in Texas in 1980 was named Seminars Unlimited in 1986, and by the 1990s was distributing evangelistic materials to Adventists worldwide.[95]

Some currently used seminars are:

  • Prophecy Seminar. USA: Seminars Unlimited, 1989. 32 studies
  • Revelation Seminar. Review and Herald / Revelation Seminars (by Seminars Unlimited of Keene, Texas), 1983. 24 studies
  • Focus on Prophecy. Voice of Prophecy, 2000. 21 studies, consisting of Focus on Daniel (studies 1–7) and Focus on Revelation (studies 8–20); number 21 is a summary, The Prophecies of Daniel and Revelation
  • Daniel. Ringwood, Victoria: Australian Union Conference Resource Centre, 2004. 16 studies

The seminar Revelation: Hope, Meaning, Purpose was written primarily by Jon Paulien and Graeme Bradford, and "published under the guidance of the Biblical Research Committee of the South Pacific Division [...]" in 2010. It consists of 24 sessions, available as printed booklets and also on 12 DVDs.[96]

Daniel and Revelation Committee Series edit

The Daniel and Revelation Committee Series (DARCOM) is one of the foremost Adventist sources, and consists of the following volumes:[97]

  • Vol. 1 Selected Studies on Prophetic Interpretation by William H. Shea (publisher's page)
  • Vol. 2 Symposium on Daniel, edited by Frank B. Holbrook (publisher's page Archived 2002-07-26 at the Wayback Machine)
  • Vol. 3 70 Weeks, Leviticus, and the Nature of Prophecy, edited by Frank B. Holbrook
  • Vol. 4 Issues in the Book of Hebrews, edited by Frank B. Holbrook
  • Vol. 5 Doctrine of the Sanctuary, edited by Frank B. Holbrook
  • Vol. 6 Symposium on Revelation-Book I, edited by Frank B. Holbrook
  • Vol. 7 Symposium on Revelation-Book II, edited by Frank B. Holbrook

Evangelists edit

Adventist evangelists such as Mark Finley,[98] Doug Batchelor, Dwight Nelson, John Carter, John Bradshaw, and Joey Suarez form a major popular face of the church, through their ministries at a local level and/or their appearances in public and on Adventist television networks such as 3ABN, It Is Written, and the Hope Channel.[99] 3ABN founder Danny Shelton is comparable.[100]

Comparison to other Christian views edit

Comparison of Christian millennial interpretations

The Seventh-day Adventist Church fits into the premillennial school of end-time belief, although it is taught that the millennial reign of Christ takes place in heaven instead of on Earth. There are several unique aspects of the denomination's teaching, such as the investigative judgment and the idea of a "Sunday law", which are shared by no other Christian denomination.

Seventh-day Adventism's eschatological teaching may be contrasted with:

See also edit

Footnotes edit

  1. ^ "A Brief Statement from the Ellen G. White Estate Regarding the Consistency of Ellen White's Statements on End-Time Events - Executive Committee". Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  2. ^ a b c Seventh-day Adventist Church. (n.d.). Fundamental Beliefs. Retrieved 24 August 2020, from
  3. ^ Bull, M.; Lockhart, K. (October 1987). "The Intellectual World of Adventist Theologians" (PDF). Spectrum. 18 (1). Roseville, California: Adventist Forums: 32–37. ISSN 0890-0264. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
  4. ^ a b Holbrook, F. (1983). "What Prophecy Means to This Church". Biblical Research Institute. Biblical Research Institute (originally published in Ministry). Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
  5. ^ " Seventh-day Adventist Church. (n.d.). Values. Retrieved on 24 August 2020 from". Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  6. ^ Cottrell, R. (1955). The Role of Israel in Old Testament Prophecy. Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary. LaRondelle, H. (1997). Understanding Israel in Prophecy. Ministry, 70:6, p 5-8. LaRondelle, H. (2007). Israel in Biblical Prophecy. Ministry 79:1, p. 17-21.
  7. ^ White, statements compiled in Colporteur Ministry, chapter "Chap. 20 – Our Large Message Books", p123. An early minister A. C. Bordeau claimed White had a vision that God is "leading his mind by His Spirit, and an angel is guiding his hand in writing" the book (quoted in a letter from J. S. Washburn to Meade MacGuire on February 18, 1923; as quoted on a website). The White Estate states this is "seriously undercut by the historical facts." "Statements Mistakenly Attributed to Ellen G. White", accessed April 2010
  8. ^ a b c "Uriah Smith". Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia, p1355–1356. Hagerstown, Maryland: Review and Herald, rev edn, 1976. As reproduced on a website
  9. ^ Thoughts on Daniel [...] 2nd edn (1883) online
  10. ^ "Articles". Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  11. ^ "part 1". Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 14:2 (Fall 2003), p15–43; "part 2". JATS 17:1 (Spring 2006), p180–208. Hans LaRondelle, "The Heart of Historicism". Ministry 77:9 (September 2005), p22–23,25–27. Kai Arasola, The End of Historicism: Millerite Hermeneutic of Time Prophecies in the Old Testament. Uppsala: University of Uppsala, 1990
  12. ^ The Sanctuary Doctrine – Asset or Liability? Part 6 by Raymond F. Cottrell
  13. ^ Seventh-day Adventists believe. Ministerial Association, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. 2005. pp. 357, 370.
  14. ^ a b Seventh-day Adventists believe. Ministerial Association, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. 2005. p. 376.
  15. ^ a b Smith 1944
  16. ^ a b Anderson 1975
  17. ^ For example, see Isaac Newton's expositions of Daniel; or Canon Edward Hoare of Canterbury Cathedral, Rome, Turkey and Jerusalem. Hatchards, 1876
  18. ^ Smith 1897, p. 105.
  19. ^ Maxwell 1981, p. 107.
  20. ^ Daniel 7:13–27 see verses 13, 14, 22, 27
  21. ^ Seventh-day Adventists Believe (2nd ed). Ministerial Association, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. 2005. pp. 182–184, 356–357. ISBN 1-57847-041-2.
  22. ^ The Great Controversy by Ellen White, p266. "Chap. 15 - The Bible and the French Revolution"
  23. ^ Seventh-day Adventists Believe (2nd ed). Ministerial Association, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. 2005. pp. 184–185. ISBN 1-57847-041-2.
  24. ^ The Great Controversy by Ellen White, p439. "Chap. 25 - God's Law Immutable"
  25. ^ Samuele Bacchiocchi believes a more significant humiliation was in 1870 when king Victor Emmanuel II of Italy captured Rome; "But there is no reason to debate over which of the two dates (1798 or 1870) have affected more adversely the papacy, because neither of the two events have significantly weakened the worldwide influence of the papacy." He interprets the healing of the wound as the Lateran Treaty with Italian Prime Minister Mussolini in 1929
  26. ^ For instance the Adult Bible Study Guide, The Gospel, 1844, and Judgment, 3rd quarter 2006, lesson 4 "Daniel 7", section "Time, Times, and Dividing of Time" for July 19, p34. Quote: "If we date the beginning of papal Rome to the late fifth, early sixth century, 1,260 years later brings us to the late eighteenth, or early nineteenth, century."
  27. ^ a b "Biblical Perspectives is coming soon". Biblical Perspectives is coming soon.
  28. ^ Seventh-day Adventists Believe (2nd ed). Ministerial Association, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. 2005. pp. 378–380. ISBN 1-57847-041-2.
  29. ^ a b The Great Controversy, Ellen G. White, chapter 39
  30. ^ Seventh-day Adventists believe (2nd ed). Ministerial Association, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. 2005. pp. 185, 382.
  31. ^ Dwight Nelson (1998-10-31). "Beauty and the Beast (NeXt Millennium series, lecture 17)". Retrieved 2007-04-05.
  32. ^ Dwight Nelson (1998-01-11). "When the Clock Runs Out on America and the New World Order (NeXt Millennium series, lecture 18)". Retrieved 2007-04-05.
  33. ^ For instance Loren Seibold, "Letting Roman Catholics Off the Hook: Seven Reasons for Rethinking Our Enemies List Archived 2010-01-17 at the Wayback Machine". Adventist Today (Winter 2010), p22–23. Preview posted online on 4 January 2010
  34. ^ John N. Andrews, Thoughts on Revelation XIII and XIV, Review and Herald, May 19, 1851, p. 81.
  35. ^ Seventh-day Adventists believe. Ministerial Association, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. 2005. p. 296.
  36. ^ Seventh-day Adventists believe. Ministerial Association, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. 2005. pp. 194–197, 296.
  37. ^ Seventh-day Adventists Answer Questions on Doctrine. Review and Herald Publishing Association, Washington, D.C. 1957. p. Chapter 18 "Historic Concept of the Mark of the Beast.".
  38. ^ Seventh-day Adventists believe (2nd ed). Ministerial Association, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. 2005. p. 284.
  39. ^ Seventh-day Adventists believe (2nd ed). Ministerial Association, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. 2005. p. 382.
  40. ^ "Time of Jacob's Trouble", p623–24 of Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia. Commentary Reference Series vol. 10 (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, 1966), ed. Don Neufeld
  41. ^ Jon Paulien, ""Revisiting the Sabbath in the Book of Revelation". Archived from the original on 2007-03-18. Retrieved 2010-10-24.". Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 9:1–2 (1998), p179–186. Also Paulien and Bradford's Revelation seminar
  42. ^ General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. "Seventh-day Adventists Believe (2nd ed, 2005)". Pacific Press Publishing Association: 374–378. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  43. ^ Fundamental Belief#25 The Second Coming of Christ. "The second coming of Christ is the blessed hope of the church, the grand climax of the gospel. The Saviour's coming will be literal, personal, visible, and worldwide. When He returns, the righteous dead will be resurrected, and together with the righteous living will be glorified and taken to heaven, but the unrighteous will die. The almost complete fulfillment of most lines of prophecy, together with the present condition of the world, indicates that Christ's coming is near. The time of that event has not been revealed, and we are therefore exhorted to be ready at all times. (Matt. 24; Mark 13; Luke 21; John 14:1-3; Acts 1:9-11; 1 Cor. 15:51-54; 1 Thess. 4:13-18; 5:1-6; 2 Thess. 1:7-10; 2:8; 2 Tim. 3:1-5; Titus 2:13; Heb. 9:28; Rev. 1:7; 14:14-20; 19:11-21.)"
  44. ^ Historian George Knight has outlined two approaches to Jesus' return: a sense of "immediacy" or expectation, and "occupying" or establishment. The danger of taking the former to an extreme is date-setting, which has often occurred in the church; and the danger of the latter is living in practice as if Jesus were not coming soon, as with the postmillennial belief (which is rejected by Adventists). The sensationalism of some approaches has brought people attention or money. He advocates balance, arguing from Jesus' end-times message in Matthew 24 and 25. 24:1-41 promotes the "expectancy" side of the picture, whereas the rest promotes the "waiting and occupying aspect of the tension." Of the five parables in this section, the first three emphasize watching (24:42- 25:13), the fourth on the talents emphasizes working while watching (25:14-30), and the final one on the sheep and the goats (25:31-46) emphasizes the social concern and nature of the working. He concludes "The ideal, of course, is to live responsibly in the interim." See George R. Knight, "Adventist Approaches to the Second Coming". Ministry 73:6/7 (June–July 2000), p28–32
  45. ^ Adventist Today special issue (1:3) "Sacred Texts: Cast Iron or Free Form? How Should We use The Great Controversy?" rejects "literalistic reading" which ignores context (Bible or EGW). Principles extracted and reaffirmed in the reader's context.See Fred Veltman, "Text and Community in Dynamic Relationship". Adventist Today 1:3 (September 1993), p16, 19
  46. ^ One lecturer claims "The symbolic, apocalyptic prophecies have always been a playground for egomaniacs, charlatans, and the sincerely misguided who play upon human fascination for a knowledge of the future, for soothsaying and fortunetelling. Prophetic exploiters motivate through fear and apprehension." He recommends instead: using sound judgment rather than being swayed by charisma, "safety in consensus", and loyal opposition (possibly) but not fault-finding. The prophecies are given to show "God's hand in history", to be "mindful that time is 'short'", the great controversy, and to remind "that Christ will triumph over evil" – we should not fear but hope for his return. See Steven Vitrano, "Prophecy: A Blessing and a Danger". Adventist Today 1:3 (September 1993), p17
  47. ^ "The World of E. G. White and the End of the World" by Jonathan Butler. Spectrum 10:2 (August 1979), p2–13. See responses Archived 2008-08-29 at the Wayback Machine in Spectrum 11:1 (July 1980), p24–34 by Harold E. Fagal, Thomas A. Norris, W. Larry Richards, and a reply from Butler
  48. ^ Paul J. Landa, "American Anti-Catholicism: History and Evaluation". Adventist Today 1:2 (July–August 1993), p12, 18
  49. ^ Clifford Goldstein, "The Great Controversy Vindicated". Adventist Today 1:2 (July–August 1993), p10. An excerpt from Day of the Dragon
  50. ^ Donald Casebolt, "Is Ellen White's Interpretation of Biblical Prophecy Final?" Spectrum 12:4 (June 1982), p2–9
  51. ^ Gerhard Hasel, "Fulfillments of Prophecy", p288–322 in 70 Weeks, Leviticus, Nature of Prophecy
  52. ^ c. 1919. As cited in Hook, p34, 37 footnote 17
  53. ^ Ford, Daniel, p172–174, 186–188. Ford has written an article on the "apotelesmatic principle" of multiple fulfillments, c. 2008, and see his commentaries on Daniel and Revelation. See also: Raymond Cottrell. "Exegesis of Daniel".. A critical perspective is Roberto Ouro, "The Apotelesmatic Principle: Origin and Application".. Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 9:1–2 (1998), p326–342
  54. ^ Hans LaRondelle, "The End-Time Message in Historical Perspective". Ministry 69:12 (December 1996), p10–13. "An approach to Revelation 12–14"
  55. ^ "A Great Earthquake". Bible Universe.
  56. ^ "Sun Turned Into Darkness". Bible Universe.
  57. ^ "Stars Fall From Heaven". Bible Universe.
  58. ^ Merton E. Sprengel, "The Dark Day Plus 200 Years". Adventist Review 157:26 (May 22, 1980), p5–8; DjVu version, PDF version also. Series: May 29, and June 5. Kenneth Wood, "The Dark Day" editorial, p13–14 in the former issue
  59. ^ MORE THAN A PROPHET. by Dr. Graeme Bradford, page 138
  60. ^ For instance Donald Casebolt, "Is Ellen White's Interpretation of Biblical Prophecy Final?" Spectrum 12:4 (June 1982), p2–9
  61. ^ a b Hans LaRondelle, "Viewpoint: The Application of Cosmic Signs in the Adventist Tradition". Ministry 71:9 (September 1998), p25–27
  62. ^ George R. Knight, Matthew. Nampa, Idaho: Pacific Press, 1994, p236–237; as cited by LaRondelle
  63. ^ For instance C. Mervyn Maxwell, God Cares. Nampa, Idaho: Pacific Press, 1985, vol. 1, p214. As quoted by LaRondelle
  64. ^ Jon Paulien, What the Bible Says about the End Time. Hagerstown, Md: Review and Herald, 1994), p157
  65. ^ Carlos Espinosa (September 29, 2006). "The Adventist Message and the Book of Daniel". Spectrum website.
  66. ^ Josiah Litch, The Probability of the Second Coming of Christ About A.D. 1843 (1838)
  67. ^ "Litch, Josiah (1809–1886)" in Gary Land, Historical Dictionary of Seventh-day Adventists, p170–171. See Ellen White, The Great Controversy, p334. Some scholars today such as Casebolt are critical of this history
  68. ^ A. Jan Marcussen (1986). National Sunday Law. Mountain Missionary Press. ISBN 0-912145-08-0.
  69. ^ "Liberty Magazine".
  70. ^ "The Other Woman | Bible Study Guides". Amazing Facts.
  71. ^ "The USA in Bible Prophecy | Bible Study Guides". Amazing Facts.
  72. ^ "The Mark of the Beast | Bible Study Guides". Amazing Facts.
  73. ^ The Great Controversy Chapter entitled: Liberty of Conscience Threatened by Ellen G. White
  74. ^ "Who is the AntiChrist? | 666 | The Mark of the Beast". 666 Truth.
  75. ^ "Reformed Eschatology (Amillennial) Since the Reformation".
  76. ^ "Antichrist Today".
  77. ^ Islam and The Papacy in Prophecy Archived 2013-08-22 at the Wayback Machine, Endtime Issues no. 86, 6 July 2002.]
  78. ^ "Biblical Perspectives is coming soon". Biblical Perspectives is coming soon.
  79. ^ a b Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary, 223
  80. ^ Uriah Smith, The United States in the Light of Prophecy. Battle Creek, Michigan: Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association (1884), 4th edition, p.224.
  81. ^ The Three Angels of Revelation XIV. 6-12, p.109. 1877 reprint. Cited from Adventist Bible Commentary
  82. ^ Commentary on Daniel and Revelation,The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary, Nichol, Francis D., (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association), 2008, ISBN 978-0-8280-1170-9, pgs. 823-824 (from Vol. 7, Philippians to Revelation)
  83. ^ Decree of Paul VI elevating the Prefecture Apostolic of Bafia, Cameroon, to a Diocese: Acta Apostolicae Sedis, Commentarium Officiale, vol. LX (1968), n. 6, pp. 317-319. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. ISBN 88-209-6068-0 ISBN 978-88-209-6068-1.
  84. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-23. Retrieved 2010-09-16.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  85. ^ "Biblical Perspectives is coming soon". Biblical Perspectives is coming soon.
  86. ^ "Biblical Perspectives is coming soon". Biblical Perspectives is coming soon.
  87. ^ "Biblical Perspectives is coming soon". Biblical Perspectives is coming soon.
  88. ^ Seventh-day Adventists Answer Questions on Doctrine, Review and Herald Publishing Association, Washington, D.C., 1957. Chapter 18 "Historic Concept of the Mark of the Beast"
  89. ^ Seventh-day Adventists Believe: A Biblical Exposition of 27 Fundamental Doctrines, Ministerial Association, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 1st edition 1988, 2nd edition 2005; and chapter 2
  90. ^ Ellen G. White, The Great Controversy, chapter 38; chapter 36; chapter 25; chapter 38; chapter 36; chapter 38
  91. ^ One author states progressive Adventists generally believe "true Christians can and do worship on Sunday, and Sunday observance is not now, or later to become, the Mark of the Beast, nor is keeping the Seventh-day Sabbath to be the Seal of God." See Ron Corson, "[1]". Adventist Today, 2002
  92. ^ "Biblical Perspectives is coming soon". Biblical Perspectives is coming soon.
  93. ^ William H. Shea. "The Location and Significance of Armageddon in Rev 16:16". Andrews University Seminary Studies. pp. 157–162.
  94. ^ Smith, Daniel and the Revelation, p691–701. See also LaRondelle, "Armageddon: History of Adventist Interpretations" in Symposium on Revelation–Book 2, Daniel and Revelation Committee Series 7. Silver Spring, MD: Biblical Research Institute, 1992, p444–449
  95. ^ "Revelation Seminar" in Historical Dictionary of Seventh-day Adventists by Gary Land, p246
  96. ^ Quote from the printed sessions. Website is
  97. ^ Biblical Research Institute - Biblical Research Institute Archived 2008-01-07 at the Wayback Machine One review is Desmond Ford, "Daniel Committee: A Response to the Daniel & Revelation Committee"
  98. ^ For instance Mark Finley, The Next Superpower. Review and Herald; ISBN 0-8280-1918-5. Revelation's Predictions for a New Millennium. Hart, 2001 (distributed by Review and Herald); ISBN 1-878046-55-1
  99. ^ Other evangelist sources include Kenneth Cox, Daniel. Review and Herald, 2005; ISBN 1-883012-37-6
  100. ^ See Danny Shelton and Shelley J. Quinn, The Antichrist Agenda: Ten Commandments Twice Removed. Review and Herald, 2005; ISBN 0-9720888-3-0

References edit

  • Anderson, Roy Allan (1975). Unfolding Daniel's Prophecies. Pacific Press Pub. Association. ISBN 0816301808.
  • Smith, Uriah (1944). Daniel and Revelation. Southern Publishing Association.
  • Swearingen, Marc Alden (2006). Tidings out of the Northeast. Coldwater, Michigan: Remnant Publication. p. 272. ISBN 1-933291-02-8.

Further reading edit

See also "Prophecy Archived 2010-04-03 at the Wayback Machine" books from

External links edit