Senja (Norwegian) or Sážžá (Northern Sami) is an island in Troms og Finnmark county, Norway, Europe. With an area of 1,586.3 square kilometres (612.5 sq mi),[1] it is the second largest island in Norway (outside of the Svalbard archipelago). It has a wild, mountainous outer (western) side facing the Atlantic, and a mild and lush inner (eastern) side.[2] The island is located within Senja Municipality, which was established on 1 January 2020. The island of Senja had 7,864 inhabitants as of 1 January 2017. Most of the residents live along the eastern coast of the island, with Silsand being the largest urban area on the island. The fishing village of Gryllefjord on the west coast has a summer-only ferry connection to the nearby island of Andøya: the Andenes–Gryllefjord Ferry.[3]

Senja  (Norwegian)
Sážžá  (Northern Sami)
Sörreisa Lenvik IMG 4917 senja solbergfjorden reisfjorden.JPG
View of the island towards the top of the picture
Norway - Senja.png
Senja is located in Troms og Finnmark
Senja
Senja
Location of the island
Senja is located in Norway
Senja
Senja
Senja (Norway)
Geography
LocationTroms og Finnmark, Norway
Coordinates69°04′50″N 16°48′11″E / 69.0806°N 16.8031°E / 69.0806; 16.8031Coordinates: 69°04′50″N 16°48′11″E / 69.0806°N 16.8031°E / 69.0806; 16.8031
Area1,586.3 km2 (612.5 sq mi)[1]
Highest elevation1,017 m (3337 ft)
Highest pointBreidtinden
Administration
Norway
CountyTroms og Finnmark
MunicipalitiesSenja Municipality
Largest settlementSilsand, Lenvik (pop. 1,583)
Demographics
Population7,864 (2017)
Pop. density4.96/km2 (12.85/sq mi)

The island sits northeast of the Vesterålen archipelago, surrounded by the Norwegian Sea to the northwest, the Malangen fjord to the northeast, the Gisundet strait to the east, the Solbergfjorden to the southeast, the Vågsfjorden to the south, and the Andfjorden to the west. Ånderdalen National Park is located in the southern part of the island.[3]

EtymologyEdit

The Old Norse form of the name is believed to have been Senja or perhaps Sændja. The meaning of the name is unknown, but it might be related to the verb sundra, which means to "tear" or "split apart", possibly because the west coast of the island is torn and split by numerous small fjords. It might also be derived from a Proto-Norse form of the word Sandijōn, meaning "(area) of sand" or "sandy island".[4][3]

GeographyEdit

 
Mountain area at Senja in August.

The island of Senja is located along the Troms og Finnmark county coastline with Finnsnes as the closest town. Senja is connected to the mainland by the Gisund Bridge. The municipalities located on Senja are Lenvik (part of which is on the mainland), Berg, Torsken, and Tranøy.[3]

The northern coasts of Senja faces the open sea, the western coast faces the islands of Andøya and Krøttøya, and the southern coast faces the islands of Andørja and Dyrøya. On the western coast, steep and rugged mountains rise straight from the sea, with some fishing villages (like Gryllefjord and Husøy) tucked into the small lowland areas between the mountains and the sea. The eastern and southern parts of the island are milder, with rounder mountains, forests, rivers, and agricultural land.[citation needed]

Senja is often referred to as "Norway in miniature", as the island's diverse scenery reflects almost the entire span of Norwegian natural geography. Senja is known domestically for its scenery, and is marketed as a tourist attraction.[citation needed]

ClimateEdit

Laukhella is near Silsand on Senja island, facing the mainland towards east. Eastern part of Senja has an atypical boreal climate, as the wettest season is autumn and winter, and winters are also milder than typical for this climate. Western part of Senja facing the Norwegian Sea has a more subpolar oceanic climate (Cfc) like Hekkingen lighthouse.

Climate data for Laukhella, Senja 1991-2020 (3 m, extremes 1997-2011)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
8.3
(46.9)
11.2
(52.2)
16.2
(61.2)
25.7
(78.3)
26.7
(80.1)
28.3
(82.9)
27.6
(81.7)
22.2
(72.0)
16.2
(61.2)
12.6
(54.7)
9.7
(49.5)
28.3
(82.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.9
(25.0)
−3.8
(25.2)
−2
(28)
1.8
(35.2)
6.4
(43.5)
10.6
(51.1)
13.5
(56.3)
12.5
(54.5)
8.4
(47.1)
3.3
(37.9)
−0.3
(31.5)
−2.4
(27.7)
3.7
(38.6)
Record low °C (°F) −22.3
(−8.1)
−23.7
(−10.7)
−22
(−8)
−17.7
(0.1)
−6
(21)
0.4
(32.7)
2.4
(36.3)
−1.3
(29.7)
−5.3
(22.5)
−14.7
(5.5)
−16.5
(2.3)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−23.7
(−10.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 102
(4.0)
85
(3.3)
97
(3.8)
63
(2.5)
51
(2.0)
57
(2.2)
66
(2.6)
77
(3.0)
117
(4.6)
114
(4.5)
88
(3.5)
105
(4.1)
1,120
(44.1)
Source: Norwegian Meteorological Institute[5]

Hekkingen island in Senja municipality is closer to the open sea, has milder winters and a subpolar oceanic climate like western Senja.

Climate data for Hekkingen 1991-2020 (33 m)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) −1
(30)
−1.4
(29.5)
−0.2
(31.6)
2.4
(36.3)
6
(43)
9
(48)
11.8
(53.2)
11.7
(53.1)
9.1
(48.4)
4.9
(40.8)
2.1
(35.8)
0.3
(32.5)
4.6
(40.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 100
(3.9)
71
(2.8)
77
(3.0)
51
(2.0)
45
(1.8)
43
(1.7)
63
(2.5)
87
(3.4)
111
(4.4)
110
(4.3)
90
(3.5)
83
(3.3)
931
(36.6)
Source: Norwegian Meteorological Institute[6]


Older climate data from the village Gibostad on the eastern shore of the island; facing the mainland, during 1961-1990.

Climate data for Gibostad, Lenvik 1961-1990
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −1.9
(28.6)
−1.8
(28.8)
0.2
(32.4)
3.6
(38.5)
8.4
(47.1)
12.9
(55.2)
15.0
(59.0)
14.6
(58.3)
10.5
(50.9)
5.8
(42.4)
1.5
(34.7)
−0.7
(30.7)
5.7
(42.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.4
(24.1)
−4.2
(24.4)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.0
(33.8)
5.5
(41.9)
9.7
(49.5)
12.3
(54.1)
11.6
(52.9)
7.5
(45.5)
3.3
(37.9)
−0.8
(30.6)
−3.2
(26.2)
3.0
(37.4)
Average low °C (°F) −7.1
(19.2)
−7.0
(19.4)
−5.5
(22.1)
−2.1
(28.2)
2.5
(36.5)
6.8
(44.2)
9.1
(48.4)
8.3
(46.9)
5.1
(41.2)
1.3
(34.3)
−3.1
(26.4)
−5.8
(21.6)
0.2
(32.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 85
(3.3)
80
(3.1)
60
(2.4)
54
(2.1)
39
(1.5)
47
(1.9)
62
(2.4)
71
(2.8)
91
(3.6)
119
(4.7)
94
(3.7)
98
(3.9)
900
(35.4)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 13.4 12.4 11.5 10.7 9.2 10.6 13.2 12.4 14.3 16.0 14.7 15.6 154.0
Source: Norwegian Meteorological Institute[7]

EconomyEdit

Naturally, the fishing industry is dominant on Senja, notably the Nergård Group at Senjahopen and Brødrene Karlsen at Husøy. Skaland has some graphite mining. Another important industry is ArtNord and Tromspotet at Silsand, which specializes in potato and potato products. Sollia has a stair factory, as well as the world's northernmost insulation glass factory, Nicopan AS, which has customers throughout Norway, plus some exports abroad.[citation needed]

TransportationEdit

The residents of Senja have the Gisund Bridge as a ferry-free road connection to the mainland across Gisundet to the town of Finnsnes. The town serves as a trading center for the entire Mid-Troms region, including the island of Senja. The island is also connected with the other towns in the county. At Lysnes on northern Senja you have a fast boat connection with the city of Tromsø, a trip that takes about 50 minutes. From the villages of Flakstadvåg and Skrolsvik on the west and south side of the island, there are also ferries to the town of Harstad to the south. During the summer there is a ferry between northern Senja and the island of Kvaløya, between southern Senja and Harstad, and between Gryllefjord and Andenes.[citation needed]

Senja has four main roads. The main road is Norwegian County Road 86 which crosses the Gisund Bridge from Finnsnes, Sørreisa, and Bardufoss. It extends across the island to Torsken and Gryllefjord. From Silsand, Norwegian County Road 861 goes north along Gisundet to Gibostad and northern Senja. Norwegian County Road 860 goes from Stonglandseidet to Silsand, Norwegian County Road 862 goes from Straumsbotn in Berg, via Senjahopen to Botnhamn in Lenvik.[citation needed]

GovernanceEdit

In March 2017, the Parliament of Norway voted to merge the municipalities of Berg, Torsken, Lenvik, and Tranøy. The new municipality was established on 1 January 2020 as Senja Municipality (Norwegian: Senja kommune).[8][9] It is located in the traditional district of Hålogaland. The administrative centre of the municipality became the town of Finnsnes. The municipality includes all of the island of Senja, the smaller surrounding islands, and part of the mainland between the Gisundet strait and the Malangen fjord.[3]

AttractionsEdit

Among the sights of the island are Ånderdalen National Park, with coastal pine forests and mountains,[10] traditional fishing communities, and previously the Senja Troll, the world's largest troll statue (which burned down 28 March 2019).[11] The southernmost municipality Tranøy also has a number of small museums documenting local history, notably the Halibut Museum ("Kveitmuseet") in Skrolsvik.[citation needed]

In popular cultureEdit

The island of Senja is mentioned in David Armine Howarth's World War II novel We Die Alone: A WWII Epic of Escape and Endurance. It has a namesake island in the MMORPG Tibia.[citation needed]

The Norwegian musician Moddi comes from the island and his music is said to have been influenced by its beauty.[12]

The Norwegian musician Biosphere lives in Senja (as of 2018-19) and his album The Senja Recordings,[13] which was recorded in Senja, refers to a number of places in Senja (Bergsbotn, Steinfjord, etc.).[citation needed]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Statens kartverk. "Øyer i Norge - største i hvert fylke" (Excel) (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 2011-07-17.
  2. ^ Mathematics and Archaeology edited by Juan A. Barcelo, Igor Bogdanovic. p.346
  3. ^ a b c d e Thorsnæs, Geir, ed. (2018-05-09). "Senja". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 2018-08-25.
  4. ^ "Bidrag till Fennoskandiens språkliga förhistoria i tid och rum" (PDF) (in Swedish). Helsingfors Universitet. Retrieved 2015-12-27.
  5. ^ "eKlima Web Portal". Norwegian Meteorological Institute. Archived from the original on 2004-06-14.
  6. ^ "eKlima". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2021-09-11.
  7. ^ "eKlima Web Portal". Norwegian Meteorological Institute. Archived from the original on 2004-06-14.
  8. ^ "Senja kommune 2020" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2017-09-09.
  9. ^ Vermes, Thomas (2017-03-29). "Stortingsflertallet gjør fire Senja-kommuner til én". ABC Nyheter (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2017-09-09.
  10. ^ "Ånderdalen National Park" (in Norwegian). Directorate for nature management. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
  11. ^ "Senjatrollet – Hulder- og Trollparken". Retrieved 2021-05-26.
  12. ^ "Moddi". Propeller Recordings. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
  13. ^ "The Senja Recordings, by Biosphere".

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit