Senegalia catechu

Senegalia catechu is a deciduous, thorny tree which grows up to 15 m (50 ft) in height.[3] The plant is called khair [4] in Hindi, and kachu in Malay, hence the name was Latinized to "catechu" in Linnaean taxonomy, as the type-species from which the extracts cutch and catechu are derived.[5] Common names for it include kher,[6] catechu, cachou, cutchtree, black cutch, and black catechu.

Senegalia catechu
Acacia catechu - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-003.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
(unranked):
(unranked):
(unranked):
Order:
Family:
Fabaceae (or Leguminosae)
Genus:
Species:
S. catechu
Binomial name
Senegalia catechu
(L.f.) P.J.H.Hurter & Mabb.
varieties
  • Senegalia catechu var. catechu (L.f.) P.J.H.Hurter & Mabb.
  • Senegalia catechu var. sundra (L.f.) Willd.[1]
Acacia-catechu-range-map2.png
Range of Senegalia catechu
Synonyms[2]

Senegalia catechu is found in parts of South Asia and Southeast Asia, including India, Myanmar, Thailand and Indonesia[2]

Pollens of Senegalia catechu

Through derivatives of the flavanols in its extracts, the species has lent its name to the important catechins, catechols and catecholamines of chemistry and biology.

UsesEdit

FoodEdit

 
Senegalia catechu flowers

The tree's seeds are a good source of protein.[7] Kattha (catechu), an extract of its heartwood, is used as an ingredient to give red color and typical flavor to paan. Paan is an Indian and Southeast Asian tradition of chewing betel leaf (Piper betle) with areca nut and slaked lime paste.

FodderEdit

Branches of the tree are quite often cut for goat fodder and are sometimes fed to cattle.[2][7][8]

Folk medicineEdit

The heartwood, bark, and wood extract (called catechu) are used in traditional medicine.[3][9] The concentrated aqueous extract, known as khayer gum or cutch, is astringent.[10]

WoodEdit

 
Senegalia catechu trunks

The tree is often planted for use as firewood and charcoal and its wood is highly valued for furniture and tools.[3] The wood has a density of about 0.88 g/cm3.[11]

Other usesEdit

Its heartwood extract is used in dyeing and leather tanning, as a preservative for fishing nets, and as a viscosity regulator for oil drilling.[3] Its flowers are a good source of nectar and pollen for bees.

CultivationEdit

 
Senegalia catechu pods

The tree can be propagated by planting its seeds, which are soaked in hot water first. After about six months in a nursery, the seedlings can be planted in the field.[3]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ hear.org
  2. ^ a b c International Legume Database & Information Service (ILDIS)
  3. ^ a b c d e www.fao.org
  4. ^ www.haryana-online.com Archived 2011-02-03 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ http://www.yourdictionary.com/catechu Derivation of word from Malay
  6. ^ Ujwala, T. K.; Tomy, Shawn; Celine, Sandra; Chander, J. Sam Johnson Udaya (2015). "A Systematic Review of Some Potential Anti-Diabetic Herbs Used in India Characterized by Its Hypoglycemic Activity". International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 6 (12): 4940–4957. ProQuest 1747402306.
  7. ^ a b World AgroForestry Database
  8. ^ Heuzé V., Tran G., Hassoun P., Lebas F., 2018. Black cutch (Senegalia catechu). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/354 Last updated on February 9, 2018, 13:20
  9. ^ "Plant Details". envis.frlht.org. Retrieved 2014-10-04.
  10. ^ British Pharmacopoeia, Department of Health, British Pharmacopoeia Commission, London. The Stationery Office, (1999)
  11. ^ FAO Appendix 1

External linksEdit

  Media related to Senegalia catechu at Wikimedia Commons   Data related to Acacia catechu at Wikispecies