On the Resting-Places of the Saints
On the Resting-Places of the Saints is a heading given to two early medieval pieces of writing, also known as Þá hálgan and the Secgan, which exist in various manuscript forms in both Old English and Latin, the earliest surviving manuscripts of which date to the mid-11th century. Secgan is so named from its Old English incipit, Secgan be þam Godes sanctum þe on Engla lande aerost reston "Tale of God's saints who first rested in England"), and is a list of fifty places which had shrines and remains of Anglo-Saxon saints. Þá hálgan (pronounced thar halgan) is a version of the so-called Kentish Royal Legend (Its incipit Her cyð ymbe þa halgan þe on Angelcynne restað "Here [follows] a relation on the saints who rest in the English nation") is a heading which appears to be for both texts, as the Kentish legend, which comes first, is actually an account of how various members of the royal family of Kent, descendents of Aethelbert, founded monasteries and came to be regarded as saints. As such it is closer to other hagiographical texts than to the list of burial sites that follows it. The texts describe people living from the 7th to 10th centuries, and they exist in both Old English and Latin versions, but both have their earliest known manuscripts dating from the 11th century.
|On the Resting-Places of the Saints|
|Full title||The account of God's saints who first rested in England|
|British Library: Stowe MS 944, ff 34v-39r|
|Parker Library, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge No. 201, pp. 147–151|
|(A third copy, Cotton Vitellius D. xvii, was destroyed by a fire of 1731)|
|Latin version ('V' text): London, British Library, Cotton Vitellius A 2 ff 3-5|
|First printed edition||Liebermann, Felix (1889). Die Heiligen Englands: Angelsächsisch und Lateinisch (in German). Hanover.|
|Period covered||Anglo-Saxon England|
The two texts now known as 'Þá hálgan' and 'Secgan' are known from two extant manuscripts written in Old English, that were transcribed in the 11th century. The manuscript known as Stowe MS 944, (folia 29v-39r), the older of the two, is thought to have been written shortly after 1031. Rollason (1978) argues that the scribe was including material dating to as early as the mid 9th century (for example the reference to Ubbanford).
Stowe MS 944 is a bound volume now in the British Library, the full scanned images of which are at British Library Online. It begins with a history of Hyde Abbey, Winchester, written in 1771, followed by a wide collection of much older original source documents. A selection of medieval drawings, is followed by a Liber vitae, written in 1031 consisting of lists of names of brethren and benefactors of the New Minster, also at Winchester, and substantially annotated. Other historiographical texts follow, including the will of King Ælfred. The two documents being considered here, originally composed entirely separately, were then written into the same Old English manuscript, under a combined heading of 'On the Resting-Places of the Saints'. However, it is the second document ('Secgan') which provided the list of saints. The first, ('Þá hálgan') includes mention of many saints, particularly those relating to Kent, but written as part of a narrative of the Kentish Royal Legend.
- Her Cyðymbe þa halgan þe on Angel cynne restað: a treatise on the family of the Kentish kings, their holy character and works (ff. 34v-36v).
- Her onygynð secgean be þam Godes s[an]c[tu]m þe on engla lande ærest reston: a treatise, in continuation of the preceding, showing the places, with their adjacent waters, in England, and one place in Ireland, where the Saints' remains are deposited (ff. 36v-39r).
CCCC 201: The two documents are found in substantially the same (but not identical) form in the Parker Library, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (CCCC 201, pp. 149–151). CCCC 201 is a substantial 3-volume set of manuscripts, with 96 constituent pieces of writing, in various 'hands' (different people's handwriting). Mostly written in Old English, it begins with Homilies of St Wolfstan.
Vitellius D: A third OE version was in the Cotton library's Vitellius D. xvii. Unfortunately this volume was destroyed in the fire of 1731.
Vitellius A3: This is one of several Latin translations of the Old English texts. It survived the 1731 fire and is now in the British Library's Cotton Vitellius A 3 ff3-5. Both extant OE texts and this Latin version were published by Felix Liebermann as Die Heiligen Englands: Angelsächsisch unt Lateinisch, a German volume published in 1889, which is still the only scholarly published version of these texts.
'Þá hálgan', (pronounced Thar Halgan) is a version of a wider group of texts on the Kentish Royal Legend, and deals with the earliest Christian kings of Kent and their families, and their pious acts, starting with the baptism of king Æthelberht of Kent by Augustine in AD 597. The text traces four generations after Æthelberht, spanning the 7th century and thus the entire period of the Christianization of England. In addition to the extensive genealogy, (in which members of the family marry into the royal families of Mercia, Northumbria and East Anglia) it has an account of the foundation of the Abbey at Minster-in-Thanet, bound up with the lives of two murdered brothers Æthelred and Æthelberht, the founding Abbess at Thanet, Domne Eafe, and her daughter saint Mildthryth.
The particular version of the Legend that accompanies the list of saints below mentions many Kentish saints and their resting places, and thus complements well the Secgan List, which has very few entries from that area. It is possible that a compiler had access to a specifically Kentish list that he drew on while collating his material. In addition to those mentioned above, Þá hálgan notes Æthelburh of Kent (who rests at Lyminge), Eanswith (Folkestone), Eormengyth (near Thanet), Ermenilda (Ely), Seaxburh (Ely), Æthelthryth (Ely), Werburgh (Hanbury,then Chester), Eorcengota (overseas).
The Secgan (abbreviated R.P.S. in the Oxford Dictionary of Saints) is a list of 54 places in England where saints' remains are deposited, listing a total of 89 saints, of whom 79 were active in England. The list is itemized with a formulaic Ðonne, e.g.
- Ðonne resteð sanctus Congarus confessor on Cungresbirig (37b, "then, St Congar the confessor rests in Congresbury")
in many cases the site is further identified by a topographical feature, mostly a river, e.g.
- Ðonne resteð sanctus Iohannes biscop on þare stowe Beferlic, neah þare ea Hul (5a, "then, St John the bishop rests at the site Beverley, near the River Hull"). In addition to the two Old English versions, there are a larger number of manuscripts with the same, or very similar material in Latin. Some of these appear to be direct translations of these known OE lists, while others are from earlier, or divergent lists as the names and places do not have a match in every instance. The list below summarises the names and places from both the Old English lists, and the Latin Secgan of Liebermann's 'V' manuscript.
List of the Saints and their resting placesEdit
|Saint's name||Resting place||Notes and Refs|
|1[a]||Modern form||Old English||Latin||Town||Church||Old English||Latin|
|2||* Saint Alban||Sanctus Albanus, Martir||Sanctus Albanus, Martyr||St Albans||St Albans Cathedral||Wætlingeceastre||Wætlingeceastre||On the River Ver (Wærlame)|
|3||* Saint Columba||Columcylle||Sanctusque Columkille||Dunkeld||Dunkeld Cathedral||Duncachán||Duncabeam||On the river Tay (Tau)|
|4||* Saint Cuthbert||Cuthberhtus||Beatus Cuthbertus||Durham & Northam, Devon||Durham Cathedral||Dunhólm (Stowe has Ubbanford)||Mentions both Dunholm & Ubbanford||On the river Tweed (Twiode)|
|5||* Oswald of Northumbria||sancte Oswald||sancti Oswaldi regis et martyris||Bamburgh,
mid sancte Cuðberhte;
|Body, head, and arm were dispursed.|
|5a||* John of Beverley||Iohannes, biscop||Johannes, episcopus||Beverley||Beverley Minster||Beferlic||Beverlic||River Hull (Húl)|
|6||* Ecgberht of Ripon,
* Saint Wilfrid,
* Saint Wihtburht
|Ripon||Ripon Cathedral||Riopum||Hryopan||River Ure (Earp)|
|6a||* Chad of Mercia
|Lichfield||Lichfield Cathedral||Licetfeld||Licetfeld||River Tame (Tamer)|
|7||* Saint Hybald of Lindsey||Higebold on Lindesige||Higeboldus apud Lindesige||Hibaldstow||St Hybald's Church, Hibaldstow||Cecesége||Cecesege||River Ancholme (Oncel)|
|8||* Æthelred I of East Anglia,
* Oswald of Northumbria
|Æðælredus||Bardney||Bardney Abbey||Bardanege||Bardanig||River Witham (Wiðma)|
|9||* Saint Eadburh of Southwell/Repton||Eadburh||Ædburh||Southwell||Southwell Minster||Suðwillum||Suðwillan||On the R Trent (Trionte). She was Abbess of Repton and friend of Guthlac|
|10||* Guthlac of Crowland||Guðlac||Guthlacus||Crowland||Crowland Abbey||Crúland||Cruland||Fens (Girwan Fænne)|
|11||* Alchmund of Derby||Ealhmund||Ælhmundus||Derby||St Alkmund's Church, Derby (site of)||Norðworþig||Norðwerðig||On the river Derwent (Deorwentan)|
|12||* Saint Botulph||Botulf||Botulphus||Peterborough[g]||Medeshamstede||Medeshamstede||On the river Nene (Nén)|
|13||* Æthelberht II of East Anglia||Æþelbriht||Æðbertus||Hereford||Hereford Cathedral||Hereforda||Hereford||On the river Wye (Weæge)|
|14||* Saint Cetta||Cett||Ceat||Oundle||Oundle Monastery||Undola||Undola||On the river Nene (Nén)|
|15||* Mildburh||Mildburh||Mildburga||Much Wenlock||Wenlock Priory||Wenlocan||Winlocan||River Severn (Sæfern)|
|16||* Wigstan (Wistan)||Wigstan||Wigstanus||Repton||Repton Priory||Hreopedune||Reopedune||River Trent (Treonte)|
|17||* Diuma||Dioma||Dionia||Charlbury||Church of St Mary the virgin||Ceorlingcburh||Ceorlingburh||River Windrush (Wenrisc)|
|18||* Edith of Polesworth||Eadgið||Eadgyð||Polesworth, Warwickshire||Polesworth Abbey||Polleswyrð||Polleswyrð||River Anker (Oncer)|
|19||* Rumwold of Buckingham||Rumwold||Rumwoldus||Buckingham||Old Parish Church, Buckingham||Buccingaham||Buckingaham||River Ouse (Usan)|
|19a||* Æthelberht of Bedford||Æþelbyrht||Æþelbertus||Bedford||unknown||Bydanford||Bedanford||River Ouse (Usan)|
|20||* Æthelred of Leominster||Æþelred||Æðelredus||Leominster||Leominster Abbey||Leomynstre||Leomenstre||River Lugg (Lucge)|
|21||* Edmund the Martyr||Ædmund||Ædmundus||Bury St Edmunds||Bury St Edmunds Abbey||Beadriceswyrðe||Beadricesweorðe||in East Anglia (Eastenglum)|
|22||* Osgyth||Osgið||Osgyð||St Osyth (Chich), Essex||St Osyth's Priory||Cicc||Cice||Near the sea, in St Peter's Monastery|
|23||* Æthelburh of Barking||Æþelburh||Æðelburga||Barking||Barking Abbey||Beorcyngan||Bercinge||River Thames (Tæmese)|
|23b||* Earconwald||Erconwald||Erconwaldus||London||Old St Paul's Cathedral||Lundenbirig||civitate Lundonia|
|24||* Neot||Neót||Neot||St Neots||St Neots Priory||Eanulfesbirig||Eanulfesberig||('Old friend of Alfred the Great'.)|
|25||* Ivo of Ramsey
* Æthelred and
|Ivo, sanctique fratres Æðelredus & Æðelbertus||Ramsey, Cambridgeshire||Ramsey Abbey||Ramesige||Ramesige||in the monastery called Barnesige|
|26||* Florentius of Peterborough
|Peterborough||Peterborough Abbey||Burh||Burh||And many others in the Monastery.[h]|
|27||* Botwulf of Thorney,
* Huna of Thorney,
* Herefrith of Thorney,
* Cissa of Crowland,
* Benedict Biscop,
|28||* Saint Vincentius||Uincentius||Abingdon||Abingdon Abbey||Abbandune||Uincentius martir - Not listed in the Latin V version.|
|29||* Dunstan &
* Augustine of Canterbury
|Canterbury||St Augustine's Abbey[i]||Cantwabyrig||Cantuarberig||Also in the city is Christ Church (Cathedral) where other saints are buried.|
|30||* Paulinus of York||Paulinus||Paulinus||Rochester, Kent||Rochester Cathedral||Rofeceatre||Roueceastre|
* (Æthelwold of Winchester),
* (Ælfheah the Bald),
* (Beornstan of Winchester),
* Justus of Beauvais.
|Winchester||Old Minster, Winchester||Winceastre on Ealdan Mynstre||Aeldermynster apud civitatem Wintonian||[j]|
Old and New Minsters dedicated to St Swithun.
|Winchester||Winchester Cathedral||Niwan mynstre||Niwemenster||The new minster at Winchester (begun 1079)|
|33||* Eadburh of Winchester||Eadburh||Ædburh||Winchester||St Mary's Abbey||nunnan minstre||Nunneminster||'in the same city'|
* (Æthelflæd of Romsey)
|Merwinna||Romsey||Romsey Abbey||Rumesige||Rumesige||Latin V adds, 'near the River Test'. |
* Edith of Wilton
|36||* Edward the Martyr,
* Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury
|37||* Aidan of Lindisfarne,
* Saint Patrick
|37b||* Congar of Congresbury||Congarus||Congarus||Congresbury, Somerset||Cungresbirig||Cungresbyrig||'Congarus confessor'|
|38||* Sativola (Sidwell)||Sidefulla||Sydefulla||Exeter||St Sidwell's Chapel(?)||Exanceastre||Exanceastre|
|39||* Rumon of Tavistock||Rumonus||Romanus||Tavistock||Tavistock Abbey||Tæuistoce||Tæfistoce|
|40||* Saint Petroc||Petrocus||Petrocus||Padstow (Pedrocstowe)||Lanwethinoc Monastery||Westwealum||Westwealum||At an Arm of the sea called Eglemouth (Hægelmuða)|
|41||* Máel Dub,
* Johannes Scotus Eriugena[m]
Iohann se wisa
|42||* Oswald of Worcester||Oswaldus||Worcester||Worcester Priory||Wigeraceastre||And many other holy bishops with him. [nb Only the CCCC OE includes this entry. Stowe and Latin V omit it]|
|43||* Egwin of Evesham||Egwinus, bisceop on Eoveshamme||Ecgwinus||Evesham||Evesham Abbey||Eoveshamme||Efesham||On the River Afon (Aféne)|
|44||* Saint Kenelm||Kenelm||Kynelmus||Winchcombe||Winchcombe Abbey||Winclescumbe||Winclescumbe|
|45||* Cuthburh||Cuðburh||Cuðburh||Wimborne||Wimborne Minster||Winburnem Mynstre||Winburnem Menster|
|46||* Frithuswith||Fryðesweoð||Fryðeswiða||Oxford||Priory of St Frideswide||Oxenaforda||Oxnaforda|
|47||* Branwalator||Brangwalatoris||Branwalator||Milton Abbas||Milton Abbey||Middeltune||Mideltune||CCCC says his head only. Also an arm of 'Samsones'.|
|48||* Cuthmann of Steyning||Cuðmann||Cuthmannus||Steyning, Sussex||Church of St Andrew and St Cuthman||Stæningum||Stæninge||Near the river Bramber (Bræmbre/Bremre)|
|Chertsey||Chertsey Abbey||Cyrtesige||Ceortesige||And 90 men slain by pagans|
|50||Si lof and wuldor haelendum Criste his godnessa in eara worulda world on écnysse, amen!
(Praise and honour to the Saviour Christ, his goodness in all the world is forever, amen.)[n]
|Final benediction only in CCCC, not in Stowe or Latin V.|
|51||* Melor||Melorius||Melorius||Amesbury||Amesbury Abbey||Ambresbyrig||Ambresbyrig||(In Stowe and Latin V only - This is the only place not present in CCCC)|
Notes on the listEdit
- Liebermann, 1889, numbers the paragraphs of the Secgan, starting with the title as number 1. Some paragraphs have several locations, denoted #b etc. Several of the locations have more than one saint buried at them. Each different saint has an asterisk bullet point at the start.
- Body and sword arm at Bamburgh, Head with St Cuthbert, left arm at Gloucester
- OE: þonne resteð Sancte Oswald cyningc on Bebbanbyrig wið þa sǣ, and his heafod resteð mid sancte Cuðberhte, and his swyrða earma is nú on Bebbanbyrig and his lichama resteð nu on niwan mynstre on Gleaweceastre.
- OE: Sancta Ecgbriht, sancte Wilferð, biscop, sancte Wihtburh. Latin: Sanctusque Ecgbertus, sanctus Wilfridus, episcopus, sanctaque Eihtbuerga
- OE: Sancte Ceadda, sancte Cedde, sancte Ceatta. Latin: Sanctusque Ceadda, sanctus Cedde, sanctus Ceatta
- Sancte Æþered, se cyningc, Sancte Ostryð, sancte Oswoldes. Latin: sanctus Æðælredus rex
- Botolph occurs twice in this list, the other under his well attested location as Botwulf of Thorney. Medeshamstede is a well attested earlier name for Peterborough - which also has entries under its later name of 'Burh'. Thorney is close to, but not the same place as Burh. It is not clear if this entry refers to the same saint using an earlier location name, the same saint divided between two locations, or two different individuals.
- OE adds something to the effect that 'Though they are hidden from the people, not all the holy people have works of wonder'(?)
- Monastery of the Apostles Peter and Paul
- Those in brackets are only listed by the CCCC text. Stowe 944 and the Latin V simply allude to 'many others with them'.
- CCCC OE includes the two in brackets, and mentions 'and fela oðra helgan' - many other saints.
- From here on, the order of the two OE texts diverges. This list follows the CCCC Old English order, as set out by Heilemann, 1889, re-ordering the matching entries from the other texts accordingly.
- William of Malmsbury claimed that this referred to Iohannes Erigena; but this is now thought to have been an error by William, and that another saint named John the Wise was being referred to.
- Translation needs checking
- Rollason 1978, p. 68.
- British Library Digitised Manuscript: Stowe MS 944 has the full manuscript pages online.
- British Library Catalogue of IlluminatedManuscripts: Detailed record for Stowe 944, accessed 6 November 2014
- A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of Corpus Christi College, M R James, 1912, Cambridge University Press, vol 1, Nos 1-250. Ms 201 is itemised on pp.485-491. Accessed 7 November 2014
- Liebermann 1889, p. XVII.
- Rawlinson 1978, p. 61.
- The version of Cotton Caligula A. xiv was translated into modern English by Oswald Cockayne, Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England, 3 vols, The Rolls Series, 35 (London: Longmans, Green, Reader and Dyer, 1864–68), iii pp. 422–29.
- Rollason 1982, p. 83-84.
- Rollason, 1978 & p73-74.
- Farmer 1992.
- Rollason 1978, p. 61-6.
- Liebermann 1889, p. XVI, Latin V manuscript: Cotton Vitellius A 2, f.3–5
- Liebermann 1889, p. 10.
- Liebermann 1889, p. 14, note 18
- G. Hickes, Dissertatio Epistolaris in Linguarum veterum septentrionalium thesaurus grammatico-criticus et archeologicus (Oxford 1703-05), p. 115
- Liebermann, Felix (1889). Die Heiligen Englands: Angelsächsisch und Lateinisch (in German). Hanover. Retrieved 28 October 2014. (Contains the full text of both Þá hálgan and Secgan in Old English and Latin. Available in various digital formats via archive.org)
- Susan J. Ridyard, The Royal Saints of Anglo-Saxon England: A Study of West Saxon and East Anglican Cults, Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought: Fourth Series, 1988.
- Rollason, D. W. (1978). "Lists of saints' resting-places in Anglo-Saxon England". Anglo-Saxon England. 7: 61–93. doi:10.1017/S0263675100002866..
- David Hugh Farmer, The Oxford Dictionary of Saints, Oxford Paperback Reference, Publisher Oxford University Press, 1992, 2004.
- Þá hálgan (aka The Kentish Royal Legend) at www.alarichall.org.uk. (Three different text versions of the legend)
- British Library Digitised Manuscript with the Old English Stowe MS 944 manuscript copy of the text from the mid 11th century. Þá hálgan begins on f.34v. Secgan begins on f.36v.