The family Scarabaeidae as currently defined consists of over 30,000 species of beetles worldwide, often called scarabs or scarab beetles. The classification of this family is fairly unstable, with numerous competing theories, and new proposals appearing quite often. Many of the subfamilies listed here probably will not be recognized very much longer, as they will likely be reduced in status below subfamily rank, or elevated to family status (the latter is most likely, e.g., with the family "Melolonthidae" already appearing in some recent classifications). Other subfamilies have been elevated to family rank recently, and are nearly universally accepted (e.g., Pleocomidae, Glaresidae, Glaphyridae, Ochodaeidae, Geotrupidae, and Bolboceratidae).
|Central European scarab beetles
with some anatomical details. Edmund Reitter's Fauna Germanica, 1908
Scarabs are stout-bodied beetles, many with bright metallic colours, measuring between 1.5 and 160 mm. They have distinctive, clubbed antennae composed of plates called lamellae that can be compressed into a ball or fanned out like leaves to sense odours. The front legs of many species are broad and adapted for digging. In some groups males (and sometimes females) have prominent horns on the head and/or pronotum to fight over mates or resources.
The C-shaped larvae, called grubs, are pale yellow or white. Most adult beetles are nocturnal, although the flower chafers (Cetoniinae) and many leaf chafers (Rutelinae) are active during the day. The grubs mostly live underground or under debris, so are not exposed to sunlight. Many scarabs are scavengers that recycle dung, carrion, or decaying plant material. Others, such as the Japanese beetle, are plant-eaters.
Some of the well-known beetles from the Scarabaeidae are Japanese beetles, dung beetles, June beetles, rose chafers (Australian, European, and North American), rhinoceros beetles, Hercules beetles and Goliath beetles.
In Ancient Egypt, the dung beetle now known as Scarabaeus sacer (formerly Ateuchus sacer) was revered as sacred. Egyptian amulets representing the sacred scarab beetles were traded throughout the Mediterranean world.
- bugguide.net Family Scarabaeidae - Scarab Beetles
- Marcos Paulo Gomes Gonçalves (2017). "Relação Entre Tempo e Besouros em Mata de Cocal" [Relationship Between Meteorological Conditions and Beetles in Mata de Cocal] (in Portuguese). doi:10.1590/0102-7786324003.
- A. A. Michelson (1911). "On metallic colourings in birds and insects". Philosophical Magazine. 21: 554–567. doi:10.1080/14786440408637061.
- RU Ehlers. Current and Future Use of Nematodes in Biocontrol: Practice and Commercial Aspects with Regard to Regulatory Policy Issues. Biocontrol Science and Technology Volume 6, Issue 3, 1996.
|Wikispecies has information related to Scarabaeidae|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Scarabaeidae.|
- Flickr Images on Flickr
- Scarabaeidae breeding site Photos of various Cetonidae, Dynastidae, Euchiridae, Lucanidae and Trichinae]
- Family SCARABAEIDAE
- June Beetles, Family: Scarabaeidae - Diagnostic photographs
- Scarab Beetle Research, Databases, and Links from Scarab Central at University of Nebraska State Museum
- Bibliography of literature published on scarab beetles since 1 January 2001 (worldwide coverage; through 2005)
- UNL Generic Guide to New World Scarabaeidae
- Heredity Scientific paper on scarab horns