Ichthyodectiformes

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Ichthyodectiformes is an extinct order of marine stem-teleost ray-finned fish. The order is named after the genus Ichthyodectes, established by Edward Drinker Cope in 1870. Ichthyodectiforms are usually considered to be some of the closest relatives of the teleost crown group.[1]

Ichthyodectiformes
Temporal range: Late Jurassic-Late Cretaceous
156.0–66 Ma
Ichthyodectidae1.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Infraclass: Teleostei
Order: Ichthyodectiformes
Bardack & Sprinkle, 1969
Subgroups

See text

They were most diverse throughout the Cretaceous period, though Thrissops fossils are known from the Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian boundary in the Late Jurassic. Most ichthyodectiforms ranged between 1 and 5 meters (3–15 ft) in length. All known taxa were predators, feeding on smaller fish; in several cases, larger ichthyodectiforms preyed on smaller members of the order. Some species had remarkably large teeth, though others, such as Gillicus arcuatus, had small ones and sucked in their prey. There is evidence that at least one species, Xiphactinus audax, may have been endothermic ("warm-blooded").[2]

SystematicsEdit

The basal phylogeny is badly resolved, leading to many ichthyodectiforms that are simply known to be rather primitive, but where nothing certain can be said about their precise relationships.

Order Ichthyodectiformes[1][3]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Nelson, Joseph S.; Grande, Terry C.; Wilson, Mark V. H. (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118342336.
  2. ^ Ferrón, H. G. (2019). "Evidence of endothermy in the extinct macropredatory osteichthyan Xiphactinus audax (Teleostei, Ichthyodectiformes)". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 39 (6): e1724123. doi:10.1080/02724634.2019.1724123.
  3. ^ Cavin, L.; Berrell, R. W. (2019). "Revision of Dugaldia emmilta (Teleostei, Ichthyodectiformes) from the Toolebuc Formation, Albian of Australia, with comments on the jaw mechanics". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 39 (1): e1576049. doi:10.1080/02724634.2019.1576049.
  4. ^ Kim, H.; Chang, M.; Wu, F.; Kim, Y. (2014). "A new ichthyodectiform (Pisces, Teleostei) from the Lower Cretaceous of South Korea and its paleobiogeographic implication". Cretaceous Research. 47: 117–130. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2013.11.007.
  5. ^ Cope, E. D. (1870). On the Saurodontidæ. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 11:529-538
  6. ^ Cope, E. D. (1873). On two new species of Saurodontidae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 25:2-339
  7. ^ Vullo, R., Buffetaut, E. and Everhart, M.J. (2012). "Reappraisal of Gwawinapterus beardi from the Late Cretaceous of Canada: a saurodontid fish, not a pterosaur." Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 32(5): 1198-1201. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.681078