Amelanchier alnifolia, the saskatoon, Pacific serviceberry, western serviceberry, alder-leaf shadbush, dwarf shadbush, chuckley pear, or western juneberry, is a shrub with edible berry-like fruit, native to North America from Alaska across most of western Canada and in the western and north-central United States. Historically, it was also called pigeon berry. It grows from sea level in the north of the range, up to 2,600 m (8,530 ft) elevation in California and 3,400 m (11,200 ft) in the Rocky Mountains, and is a common shrub in the forest understory.
|A. a. var. semiintegrifolia at Icicle Canyon, Chelan County Washington|
|Natural range of Amelanchier alnifolia|
The name saskatoon derives from the Cree inanimate noun misâskwatômina (misâskwatômin NI sg, saskatoonberry, misâskwatômina NI pl saskatoonberries). The city of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, is named after this berry.
The leaves are oval to nearly circular, 2–5 cm (3⁄4–2 in) long and 1–4.5 cm (1⁄2–1 3⁄4 in) broad, on a 0.5–2 cm (1⁄4–3⁄4 in) leaf stem, margins toothed mostly above the middle. The foliage is browsed by deer and livestock.
As with all species in the genus Amelanchier, the flowers are white, with five quite separate petals. In A. alnifolia, they are about 2–3 cm (3⁄4–1 1⁄4 in) across, and appear on short racemes of three to 20 somewhat crowded together, in spring while the new leaves are still expanding.
The fruit is a small purple pome 5–15 mm (3⁄16–19⁄32 in) in diameter, ripening in early summer in the coastal areas and late summer further inland. They are eaten by wildlife including birds, squirrels and bears. It is also a larval host to the pale tiger swallowtail, two-tailed swallowtail, and the western tiger swallowtail.
Cultivation and usesEdit
Seedlings are planted with 13–20 feet (4.0–6.1 m) between rows and 1.5–3 feet (0.46–0.91 m) between plants. An individual bush may bear fruit 30 or more years.
Saskatoons are adaptable to most soil types with exception of poorly drained or heavy clay soils lacking organic matter. Shallow soils should be avoided, especially if the water table is high or erratic. Winter hardiness is exceptional, but frost can damage blooms as late as May. Large amounts of sunshine are needed for fruit ripening.
With a sweet, nutty taste, the fruits have long been eaten by Canada's aboriginal people, fresh or dried. They are well known as an ingredient in pemmican, a preparation of dried meat to which saskatoon berries are added as flavour and preservative. They are used in saskatoon berry pie, jam, wines, cider, beers, and sugar-infused berries similar to dried cranberries used for cereals, trail mix, and snack foods.
Diseases and pestsEdit
A. alnifolia is susceptible to cedar-apple rust, entomosporium leaf spot, fireblight, brown rot, cytospora canker, powdery mildew, and blackleaf. Problem insects include aphids, thrips, mites, bud moths, Saskatoon sawflies, and pear slug sawflies.
|Nutrients in raw saskatoon berries|
|Nutrient||Value per 100 g||% Daily Value|
|Total dietary fiber||5.9 g||20%|
|Sugars, total||11.4 g||8%|
|Vitamin C||3.6 mg||4%|
|Vitamin A||11 IU||1%|
|Vitamin E||1.1 mg||7%|
|Riboflavin||3.5 mg||> 100%|
|Panthothenic acid||0.3 mg||6%|
Saskatoon berries contain significant amounts of total dietary fiber, riboflavin and biotin, and the dietary minerals, iron and manganese, a nutrient profile similar to the content of blueberries.
Also similar in composition to blueberries, saskatoons have total polyphenol content of 452 mg per 100 g (average of 'Smoky' and 'Northline' cultivars), flavonols (61 mg) and anthocyanins (178 mg), although others have found the phenolic values to be either lower in the 'Smoky' cultivar or higher. Quercetin, cyanidin, delphinidin, pelargonidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin were present in saskatoon berries.
Media related to Amelanchier alnifolia at Wikimedia Commons
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Records: 42' x 3'3" x 43', Beacon Rock State Park, WA (1993); 27' x 3'9" x 22', Douglas County, OR (1975)
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- University of Maine: Amelanchier list of taxa
- "Amelanchier alnifolia var. alnifolia". University of Maine.
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- "Amelanchier alnifolia var. semiintegrifolia". University of Maine.
- "Introduction to Saskatoons". Archived from the original on 2008-12-12. Retrieved 2008-01-06.
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- Mazza, G; Davidson, CG (1993). "Saskatoon berry: A fruit crop for the prairies". In Janick, J.; Simon, J.E. (eds.). New crops. New York: Wiley. pp. 516–519.
- "Saskatoon Berries". Government of Manitoba - Ministry of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2013-10-02. Retrieved 2017-08-24.
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- Ozga; Saeed, A; Wismer, W; Reinecke, DM (2007). "Characterization of cyanidin- and quercetin-derived flavonoids and other phenolics in mature saskatoon fruits (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55 (25): 10414–24. doi:10.1021/jf072949b. PMID 17994693.
- Hosseinian; Beta, T (2007). "Saskatoon and wild blueberries have higher anthocyanin contents than other Manitoba berries". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55 (26): 10832–8. doi:10.1021/jf072529m. PMID 18052240.
- Bakowska-barczak; Marianchuk, M; Kolodziejczyk, P (2007). "Survey of bioactive components in Western Canadian berries". Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 85 (11): 1139–52. doi:10.1139/y07-102. PMID 18066116.