Pyridoxine

Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as dietary supplement.[1] As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent pyridoxine deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, certain metabolic disorders, side effects or complications of isoniazid use, and certain types of mushroom poisoning.[5][1] It is used by mouth or by injection.[5]

Pyridoxine
Pyridoxine structure ver2.svg
Pyridoxine ball-and-stick.png
Pyridoxine
Clinical data
Other namesvitamin B6,[1] pyridoxol[2] pyridoxine hydrochloride
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
License data
Pregnancy
category
Routes of
administration
By mouth, intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
  • 4,5-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridin-3-ol
CAS Number
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.000.548 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC8H11NO3
Molar mass169.180 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point159 to 162 °C (318 to 324 °F)
  • OCc1cnc(C)c(O)c1CO
  • InChI=1S/C8H11NO3/c1-5-8(12)7(4-11)6(3-10)2-9-5/h2,10-12H,3-4H2,1H3 checkY
  • Key:LXNHXLLTXMVWPM-UHFFFAOYSA-N

It is usually well tolerated.[5] Occasionally side effects include headache, numbness, and sleepiness.[5] Normal doses are safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[5] Pyridoxine is in the vitamin B family of vitamins.[5] It is required by the body to make amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids.[5] Sources in the diet include fruit, vegetables, and grain.[6]

Pyridoxine was discovered in 1934, isolated in 1938, and first made in 1939.[7][8] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[9] Pyridoxine is available both as a generic medication and over the counter product.[5] Foods, such as breakfast cereal have pyridoxine added in some countries.[6]

Medical usesEdit

As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent pyridoxine deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, certain metabolic disorders, problems from isoniazid, and certain types of mushroom poisoning.[5][1] Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a type of rare epilepsy that does not improve with typical antiseizure medications.[10] Pyridoxine is used by mouth or by injection.[5]

Pyridoxine in combination with doxylamine is used as a treatment for morning sickness in pregnant women. It has been used in hydrazine exposure with unclear effect.[11]

Side effectsEdit

It is usually well tolerated, though overdose toxicity is possible.[5] Occasionally side effects include headache, numbness, and sleepiness.[5] Pyridoxine overdose can cause a peripheral sensory neuropathy characterized by poor coordination, numbness, and decreased sensation to touch, temperature, and vibration.[12] Healthy human blood levels of pyridoxine are 2.1 - 21.7 ng/mL. Normal doses are safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[5]

MechanismEdit

Pyridoxine is in the vitamin B family of vitamins.[5] It is required by the body to make amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids.[5] Sources in the diet include fruit, vegetables, and grain.[6] It is also required for muscle phosphorylase activity associated with glycogen metabolism.

History and cultureEdit

Pyridoxine was discovered in 1934, isolated in 1938, and first made in 1939.[7][8] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[9] Pyridoxine is available as a generic medication and over the counter.[5] Foods, such as breakfast cereal have pyridoxine added in some countries.[6]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d World Health Organization (2009). Stuart MC, Kouimtzi M, Hill SR (eds.). WHO Model Formulary 2008. World Health Organization. p. 496. hdl:10665/44053. ISBN 9789241547659.
  2. ^ Dryhurst, Glenn (2012). Electrochemistry of Biological Molecules. Elsevier. p. 562. ISBN 9780323144520. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016.
  3. ^ a b "Pyridoxine Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 27 April 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  4. ^ "Pyridoxine 50mg Tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)". (emc). 27 April 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Pyridoxine Hydrochloride". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d "Office of Dietary Supplements - Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B6". ods.od.nih.gov. 11 February 2016. Archived from the original on 12 December 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  7. ^ a b Squires, Victor R. (2011). The Role of Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in Human Nutrition - Volume IV. EOLSS Publications. p. 121. ISBN 9781848261952.
  8. ^ a b Harris, Harry (2012). Advances in Human Genetics 6. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 39. ISBN 9781461582649.
  9. ^ a b World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  10. ^ Abend, NS; Loddenkemper, T (July 2014). "Management of pediatric status epilepticus". Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 16 (7): 301. doi:10.1007/s11940-014-0301-x. PMC 4110742. PMID 24909106.
  11. ^ "Hydrazine (EHC 68, 1987)". www.inchem.org. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  12. ^ "Pyridoxine deficiency and toxicity | MedLink Neurology". www.medlink.com. Retrieved 14 December 2020.

External linksEdit