Samuel Adolphus Cartwright (November 3, 1793 – May 2, 1863) was an American physician who practiced in Mississippi and Louisiana in the antebellum United States. Cartwright is best known as the inventor of the 'mental illness' of drapetomania, the desire of a slave for freedom, and an outspoken opponent of germ theory.
Samuel A. Cartwright
Samuel Adolphus Cartwright
November 3, 1793
|Died||May 2, 1863 (aged 69)|
|Education||University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine|
|Known for||Coining "drapetomania"|
Cartwright married Mary Wren of Natchez, Mississippi, in 1825. During the American Civil War, he was a physician in the Confederate States Army and served in camps near Vicksburg and Port Hudson. He was assigned with improving the sanitary conditions for the soldiers.
The Medical Association of Louisiana charged Cartwright with investigating "the diseases and physical peculiarities of the negro race". His report was delivered as a speech at its annual meeting on March 12, 1851, and published in its journal. The most sensationalistic portions of it, on drapetomania and dysaesthesia aethiopica, were reprinted in DeBow's Review. He subsequently prepared an abbreviated version, with sources cited, for Southern Medical Reports.
"If they nonetheless became dissatisfied with their condition, they should be whipped to prevent them from running away." In describing his theory and cure for drapetomania, Cartwright relied on passages of Christian scripture dealing with slavery.
Furthermore, Cartwright described the condition of 'genu fluxit', in which slaves exacted awe and reverence towards their master. The condition could be lost though if masters were to treat their slaves overly harshly and deny basic privileges. Rather than just arguing to treat slaves negatively overall, he desired to treat slaves somewhere in the middle, similar to how one would treat a child.
Cartwright also invented another 'disorder', dysaesthesia aethiopica, a disease "affecting both mind and body." Cartwright used his theory to explain the perceived lack of work ethic among slaves. Dysaesthesia aethiopica, "called by overseers 'rascality'," was characterized by partial insensitivity of the skin and "so great a hebetude of the intellectual faculties, as to be like a person half asleep." Other symptoms included "lesions of the body discoverable to the medical observer, which are always present and sufficient to account for the symptoms."
According to Cartwright, dysaesthesia aethiopica was "much more prevalent among free negroes living in clusters by themselves, than among slaves on our plantations, and attacks only such slaves as live like free negroes in regard to diet, drinks, exercise, etc." — indeed, according to Cartwright, "nearly all [free negroes] are more or less afflicted with it, that have not got some white person to direct and to take care of them."
Cultural depictions edit
- Cartwright was referenced in the 2004 film C.S.A.: The Confederate States of America. In the film, after the Confederate States of America wins the American Civil War, Cartwright's work forms the basis for the fictional Cartwright Institute for Freedom Illnesses, a medical school incorporating his theory on drapetomania and other "negro peculiarities".
- Cartwright is also portrayed in the 1971 Mondo exploitation film Goodbye Uncle Tom alongside many other figures from the time. Notably, Cartwright is stated to be Jewish in the film, which he was not in reality.
- Cartwright, M. D., S. A. (August 1851). "How to Save the Republic, and the Position of the South in the Union". DeBow's Journal. Vol. 11, no. 2. pp. 184–197.
- Cartwright, Dr. (July 1858). "Dr. Cartwright on the Caucasians and the Africans". DeBow's Review. Vol. 25, no. 1. pp. 45–56. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
- Cartwright, Samuel A. (September 1859). "The Education, Labor, and Wealth of the South". DeBow's Review. Vol. 27, no. 3. pp. 263–279.
- Cartwright, Samuel A. (August 1860). "Unity of the Human Race Disproved by the Hebrew Bible". DeBow's Review. Vol. 4, no. 2. pp. 129–136. Retrieved September 29, 2019.
- Cartwright, Samuel A. (1863). "An essay on the natural history of the prognathous race of mankind". The Dred Scott decision. Opinion of Chief Justice Taney, with an introduction by Dr. J.H. Van Evrie. Also, an appendix, containing an essay on the natural history of the prognathous race of mankind, originally written for the New York Day-book, by Dr. S. A. Cartwright, of New Orleans. New York: Van Evrie, Horton & Co. pp. 45–48.
- Miller, Randall M.; John David Smith (1997). Dictionary of Afro-American Slavery. Westport: Praeger. ISBN 0-313-23814-6.
- Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri (1888). The Clinical Reporter. Vol. 1. p. 320. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- "Samuel A. Cartwright and Family Papers", Mss. 2471, 2499, Inventory, Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collections, Special Collections, Hill Memorial Library, Louisiana State University Libraries, Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University, page 4.
- Cartwright, Samuel A. (May 1851). "Report on the Diseases and Physical Peculiarities of the Negro Race". New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal: 691–715. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- Cartwright, Ssmuel A. (July 1851). "Diseases and Peculiarities of the Negro Race". DeBow's Review. Vol. 11, no. 1. pp. 64–74.
- Cartwright, Samuel A. (1851). "The Diseases and Physical Peculiarities of the Negro Race". Southern Medical Reports. Vol. 2. pp. 421–429.
- Cartwright, Samuel. "Diseases and Peculiarities of the Negro Race". pbs.org.
- Pilgrim, David. "Question of the Month: Drapetomania" Archived June 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Jim Crow Museum. Jim Crow Museum, Ferris State University. November 2005.
- Paul Finkelman (1997). Slavery & the Law. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 305. ISBN 0-7425-2119-2.
- Rick Halpern, Enrico Dal Lago (2002). Slavery and Emancipation. Blackwell Publishing. p. 273. ISBN 0-631-21735-5.
- "Samuel Adolphus Cartwright", A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography, Vol. 1 (1988), p. 157
- Dictionary of American Medical Biography", Vol. 1 (1984)
- Marshall, Mary Louise (1940). "Samuel A. Cartwright and States' Rights Medicine". New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal. 93.
- Jackson, Vanessa (c. 2002). "In Our Own Voice: African-American Stories of Oppression, Survival and Recovery in Mental Health Systems". Archived from the original on May 26, 2011. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
- "Thomas Roderick Dew". Defense of Slavery: Theorists of Racial Inequality. Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
- Wilson, J. G.; Fiske, J., eds. (1900). . Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
- Mary Louise Marshall, "Samuel A. Cartwright and States' Rights Medicine," New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal, XC (1940–1941).
Further reading edit
- Davis, William C. (2002). "Men but Not Brothers". Look Away!: A History of the Confederate States of America. Simon & Schuster. pp. 130–162.
- Marshall, Mary Louise (1940–1941). "Samuel A. Cartwright and States' Rights Medicine". New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal. 90.