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Rytigynia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae. It is found in tropical and southern Africa. The genera Rytigynia and Fadogia form a strongly supported clade but neither of these genera is monophyletic.[1]

Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Rubiaceae
Subfamily: Ixoroideae
Tribe: Vanguerieae
Genus: Rytigynia
Type species
Rytigynia senegalensis



Rytigynia is found in Tropical Africa. R. senegalensis and R. umbellulata are the two most widespread species and they are found from Senegal to Sudan to Botswana. R. celastroides has the southernmost distribution and occurs as far south as KwaZulu-Natal. However, most species are more restricted in distribution area and they are often found in either West or East Africa. Half of the species is even endemic to one country. One-third of all Rytigynia species is found in Tanzania, and many of them are endemics.[2]

Bacterial leaf symbiosisEdit

Endophytic bacteria are housed in the intercellular space of the leaf mesophyll tissue. The presence of these bacteria can only be microscopically ascertained. The bacteria are identified as Burkholderia, which is a genus that is also found in the leaves of other Rubiaceae species.[3][4] The hypothesis is that these endophytic bacteria provide chemical protection against insect herbivory.[5]



  1. ^ Lantz H, Bremer B (2004). "Phylogeny inferred from morphology and DNA data: characterizing well-supported groups in Vanguerieae (Rubiaceae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 146 (3): 257–283. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2004.00338.x.
  2. ^ "Rytigynia in the World Checklist of Rubiaceae". Retrieved October 2013. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  3. ^ Verstraete B, Janssens S, Smets E, Dessein S (2013). "Symbiotic beta-proteobacteria beyond legumes: Burkholderia in Rubiaceae". PLoS ONE. 8: e55260. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055260. PMC 3555867. PMID 23372845.
  4. ^ Verstraete B, Janssens S, Lemaire B, Smets E, Dessein S (2013). "Phylogenetic lineages in Vanguerieae (Rubiaceae) associated with Burkholderia bacteria in sub-Saharan Africa". American Journal of Botany. 100: 2380–2387. doi:10.3732/ajb.1300303. PMID 24275705.
  5. ^ Sieber S, Carlier A, Neuburger M, Grabenweger G, Eberl L, Gademann K (2015). "Isolation and total synthesis of kirkamide, an aminocyclitol from an obligate leaf nodule symbiont". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 54: 7968–7970. doi:10.1002/anie.201502696.

External linksEdit