Rwanda Defence Force
The Rwanda Defence Force (RDF, Kinyarwanda: Ingabo z'u Rwanda; French: Forces rwandaises de défense) is the national army of Rwanda. The country's armed forces were originally known as the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR), but following the victory of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (Inkotanyi) in the country's civil war in 1994, it was renamed to the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA), and later to its current name.
|Rwanda Defence Force|
|Ingabo z'u Rwanda|
Forces rwandaises de défense
Nguvu ya Ulinzi ya Watu wa Rwanda
|Service branches|| Land Forces|
|Headquarters||Post Box 23, Kigali|
|Commander-in-Chief||President Paul Kagame|
|Minister of Defence||Major General Albert Murasira|
|Chief of Defence Staff||General Patrick Nyamvumba|
|2,625,917 males, age 16–49 (2010 est.),|
2,608,110 females, age 16–49 (2010 est.)
|1,685,066 males, age 16–49 (2010 est.),|
1,749,580 females, age 16–49 (2010 est.)
|Budget||$91 million (2015)|
|Percent of GDP||1.1% (2015)|
|History||Military history of Rwanda|
Rwandan Civil War
First Congo War
Second Congo War
Six-Day War (2000)
2009 Eastern Congo offensive
The RDF comprises:
- High Command Council of the RDF
- General Staff of the RDF
- Rwanda Land Force
- Rwanda Air Force
- Individual units
- Army Band of the RDF
In November 2002 Emmanuel Habyarimana was removed[by whom?] from his post as Minister of Defence, an action which government spokesperson Joseph Bideri attributed to his "extreme pro-Hutu" views. Marcel Gatsinzi became Minister of Defence (in office 2002-2010) in succession to Habyarimana.
After it conquered the country in July 1994 in the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide of April to July 1994, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) decided to split into a political division (which retained the RPF name) and a military division, which would serve as the official army of the Rwandan state.
Defence spending continues to represent an important share of the national budget, largely due to continuing security problems along Rwanda's frontiers with the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Burundi, and lingering concerns about Uganda's intentions towards its former ally. The Rwandan government launched an ambitious plan to demobilize thousands of soldiers, resulting in a standing military of 33,000 and another 2,000-strong paramilitary force - a decrease from 70,000 in just a decade.
During the First and Second Congo Wars of 1996-2003, the RPF committed wide-scale human-rights violations and crimes against humanity in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, according to the United Nations Mapping Report.
Historical outline 1962–1994Edit
|Rwandan genocide (1994)|
|Rwandan Armed Forces|
|1st and 2nd Congo War|
The U.S. Army's Area Handbook for Rwanda, compiled in 1968-9, describes the security forces of Rwanda in 1969 as the 2,500 strong National Guard and the National Police, about 1,200 strong. The National Guard had been established two years before independence and had gained experience by repelling small Tutsi invasions in 1963 and 1964. It was under the direction of the Minister of Defence, Juvénal Habyarimana, who also held the function of Chief of Staff of the National Guard in mid-1969. At that time it was composed of a headquarters, an intervention group (effectively an infantry battalion), five other rifle companies, and five independent rifle platoons.
The Forces armées rwandaises (FAR) was the national army of Rwanda until July 1994, when the government collapsed in the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide and the war with the Rwandan Patriotic Front/(Inkotanyi). The FAR was estimated at 7,000 strong, including approximately 1,200 members of the Gendarmerie. Elite troops included the Presidential Guard, estimated at between 1,000-1,300 troops, as well as the Paracommando and Reconnaissance units. These two units were of battalion strength by 1994, and then counted a total of 800 troops.
The Arusha Accords, signed on August 4, 1993, laid out a detailed plan for the integration of the Rwandan Government and Rwandan Patriotic Front military forces. The Rwandan government was to provide 60% of the troops for the new integrated army, but would have to share command positions with the RPF down to the level of battalion. The new army was to consist of no more than 19,000 soldiers and 6,000 Gendarmerie. However radical elements within the Rwandan government were implacably opposed to implementation of the Accords and, instead, began the planning that would lay the foundations for the genocide.
The Reconnaissance Battalion's commander, François-Xavier Nzuwonemeye, and his subordinates played a key role during the genocide. Together with the Reconnaissance Battalion, the Paracommando Battalion under Major Aloys Ntabakuze and the Presidential Guard under Major Protais Mpiranya became the three most significant genocidare units.
Col. Marcel Gatsinzi was briefly named chief of staff of the Rwandan army from April 6 to April 16, 1994, but was replaced by Augustin Bizimungu, who was also promoted to major general on 18 April, since Col. Gatsinzi opposed the genocide. Bizimungu was only briefly chief of staff before fleeing the country. Many soldiers of the FAR have since been implicated by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in the genocide, including its leader during the genocide, Col. Théoneste Bagosora, who was chief of the cabinet (private office) of the Ministry of Defence prior to the genocide.
Many elements of the former Rwandan regime, including soldiers of the FAR, fled to eastern Zaire after the RPF victory, where they formed the Rassemblement Démocratique pour le Rwanda (RDR), which later became the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), which is still active in eastern Congo's North Kivu Province.
Forces Armées RwandaisesEdit
The Forces Armées Rwandaises (FAR) was composed of the Gendarmerie Nationale (6,000 personnel in 1994) and the Rwandan Army (30,000 troops in 1994).
President and Commander-in-Chief
- Grégoire Kayibanda, 26 October 1961 to 5 July 1973 (overthrown in coup d'etat).
- Juvénal Habyarimana, 5 July 1973 to 6 April 1994 (killed in aircraft downing).
- Théodore Sindikubwabo, 8 April to 19 July 1994 (acting, overthrown in military takeover).
Minister of Defence
- Calliope Mulindahabi (or Mulindahaba), 1962 to 1965.
- Juvénal Habyarimana, 1965 to 1991.
- Maj. Gen. Augustin Ndindiliyimana, 1991 to 1992.
- Maj. Gen. James Gasana, April 1992 to July 1993.
- Augustin Bizimana, July 1993 to July 1994.
Chief of Staff of the Rwandan Army
- Maj. Gen. Déogratias Nsabimana, to 6 April 1994 (killed in aircraft downing)
- Col. Marcel Gatsinzi, 7 April 1994 but replaced after two weeks, defected to the RPF.
- Maj. Gen. Augustin Bizimungu, April 1994 to July 1994.
Chief of Staff of the Gendarmerie Nationale
- Maj. Gen. Augustin Ndindiliyimana, June 1992 to 5 June 1994.
- Col. Félicien Muberuka, from 5 June 1994.
Rwandan Patriotic Army/Rwanda Defense ForceEdit
President and Commander-in-Chief
- Pasteur Bizimungu, 19 July 1994 to 23 March 2000, although Paul Kagame the Minister of Defence was also Commander-in-Chief. (Placed under house arrest 19 April 2002; sentenced to 15 years imprisonment for attempting to form a militia, inciting violence, and embezzlement 7 June 2004; appeal denied 17 February 2006; pardoned and released from prison 6 April 2007).
- Paul Kagame, 22 April 2000 to present.
Minister of Defence
- Maj. Gen. Paul Kagame, 1994 to 2000.
- Brig. Gen. Emmanuel Habyarimana, 2000 to November 2002 (defected to Uganda 30 March 2003).
- Gen. Marcel Gatsinzi, November 2002 to April 2010.
- Gen. James Kabarebe, April 2010 to October 2018.
- Maj. Gen. Albert Murasira, October 2018 to present.
Chief of Defence Staff
- Maj. Gen. Paul Kagame
- Lt. Gen. Faustin Kayumba Nyamwasa, 1998 to 2002 (fled to South Africa from India on 28 February 2010; shot in the stomach in Johannesburg on 19 June 2010.)
- Gen. James Kabarebe, July (October?) 2002 – April 2010
- Lt. Gen. Charles Kayonga, April 2010 – June 2013
- Lt. Gen. Patrick Nyamvumba, 22 June 2013 – present. 
A number of sources, including Gérard Prunier, document U.S. aid to the RPA before the First Congo War. The officially admitted part of the training was Joint Combined Exchange Training. Prunier strongly implies the United States supplied communications equipment, vehicles, boots, and medicines to the RPA before the war began and after it broke out, delivered second-hand Warsaw Pact weapons and ammunition either directly to Goma or by airdrop along the AFDL front lines. He reports that after the war's outbreak, the U.S. Air Force had switched from using C-141 Starlifters and C-5 Galaxys to deliver the non-lethal aid to Kigali Airport and Entebbe Airport, to airdrops by C-130 Hercules aircraft.
From July 1994 until December 1997 the RPA had six brigades, as designated in the Arusha Accords: 402nd in Kigali and Kigali Rurale Prefecture; 201st in Kibungo, Umatura, and Byumba Prefectures; 301st in Butare, Gikongoro, and Cyangugu Prefectures; 305th in Gitatama and Kibuye Prefectures; and 211th in Gisenyi and Ruhengeri Prefectures. The brigade boundaries mirrored the political administrative boundaries, which often complicated military operations. During the First Congo War the brigade headquarters remained inside Rwanda but directed operations inside the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Jane's World Armies said in July 2009 that 'the RDF is deployed to protect the country's borders and defend against external aggression. There are four divisions, each deploying three brigades:
- 1 Division, based at Kigali, covers the central and east region;
- 2 Division, based at Byumba, covers the north and east region;
- 3 Division, based at Gisenyi, covers the northwest region; and
- 4 Division, based at Butare, covers the southwest region.'
Brigades mentioned in press reports include:
- Special Forces Brigade (Brig. Innocent Kabanda)
- Artillery Brigade
- 201 Brigade (Col. Alex Ngoga Kayumba)
- 204 Brigade, Gasabo District, Kigali
- 211 Brigade (Col. Jomba Gakumba)
- 301 Brigade
- 305 Brigade (Col. Paul Nyemazi)
- 307 Brigade
- 402 Brigade
- 408 Brigade, Rusizi District (Brig. Vincent Gatame)
- 411 Brigade
- 501 Brigade
- 503 Brigade
- 511 Brigade, Gicumbe District
Gen. Patrick Nyamvumba has been Chief of Defence Staff since June 2013.
Many soldiers from the former Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR), the national army under the previous regime, have been incorporated into the RDF since 1994. This process began soon after the genocide in January 1995, when several former FAR officers were given senior positions in the new armed forces: Col. (later Gen.) Marcel Gatsinzi became the Deputy Chief of Staff of the RPA, Col. Balthazar Ndengeyinka became commander of the 305th Brigade, Lt. Col. Laurent Munyakazi took command of the 99th Battalion, and Lt. Col. (later Brig. Gen.) Emmanuel Habyarimana became an RPA Member of Parliament and Director of Training in the Ministry of Defence. Gen. Gatsinzi later became Director of Security and then Minister of Defence in 2002.
Circa 2000 during the Second Congo War, the Rwanda Patriotic Army unofficially admitted to having 4,000 to 8,000 troops deployed in the Congo, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit, but this was believed to be a substantial understatement. The International Crisis Group estimated that the RPA has between 17,000 and 25,000 troops deployed in the Congo. In April 2001, a United Nations report on the exploitation of the Congo, said the RPA had a minimum of 25,000 troops in the Congo, an estimate the report attributes to "military specialists with a great deal of experience in the region." During the deployment on DRC, Rwandan forces fought the so-called "Six-Day War" against Ugandan forces over the city of Kisangani, leaving at least 1,000 dead.
On 17 September 2002 the first Rwandan soldiers were withdrawn from the eastern DRC. On 5 October Rwanda announced the completion of its withdrawal; MONUC confirmed the departure of over 20,000 Rwandan soldiers.
After achieving independence in 1962, the air arm (Force aérienne rwandaise) was formed with Belgian help. By 1972 the first modern equipment started to arrive in the form of seven Alouette IIIs. Other deliveries included SA 342L Gazelles, Britten-Norman Islanders, Nord Noratlas, SOCATA Guerrier armed light planes and AS 350B Ecureuils. After fighting began between the RPA and the government in 1990 most aircraft were shot down, destroyed on the ground or crashed. Few survived.
During December 2012 an aviation unit of three helicopters was sent to the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). The Rwandan Aviation Unit was subsequently increased to six helicopters - reportedly Mi-17.
Despite not being a former British colony, Rwanda has generally used British foot drill during official parades and functions. Since 2019 however, the RDF adopted the Chinese variant of the goosestep, which is today mostly used by countries in Central and Eastern Europe, communist countries, as well as countries with a large Prussian/German influence (Russia, China and Chile all being examples of each). It was first displayed in April during the military parade in honor of the Rwandan Genocide's silver jubilee on Liberation Day, in which over 1,500 RDF soldiers and policemen trained by six members of the Beijing Garrison Honor Guard Battalion of the People's Liberation Army's Central Theater Command marched while using the goosestep. It the introduction of the goosestep also saw to use of Mandarin parade commands such as "Look to the Right!" to which the soldiers respond with "One! Two!", which is done similarly in the PLA honor guard Prior to this, only the rebels who during the Civil War utilized the goosestep as they received military training in the neighboring country of Uganda, which uses the goosestep.
The Rwanda Defence Forces Army Band is the ceremonial military band of the RDF. The RDF Band was founded in 1992 during the Rwandan Civil War and had its first performance on March 8, 1992 when it only had 16 members. After the war, it was reestablished with 46 members. In 2002, Lieutenant Colonel Lemeul Kayumba was appointed commanding officer of the band. Under his leadership, the band introduced intensive training and relationships with foreign military music programs. Although it represents the defence forces, it falls under the command of the Land Forces. It is currently led by Commanding Officer Lieutenant Leonard Ndayambaje.
The RDF Band is made up of 4 ensembles:
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