List of emperors of Ethiopia

This article lists the Emperors of Ethiopia, from the founding of the Zagwe dynasty in the 9th/10th century until 1974, when the last Emperor from the Solomonic dynasty was deposed.

Kings of Aksum and Dʿmt are listed separately due to numerous gaps and large flexibility in chronology.

For legendary and archeologically unverified rulers of Ethiopian tradition, see List of legendary monarchs of Ethiopia.

Names in italics indicate rulers who were usurpers or not widely recognized.

Zagwe dynastyEdit

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Mara Takla Haymanot
  • Kidus Abebaw
Zagwe 
TatadimSon of Mara Takla HaymanotZagwe 
Jan SeyumSon of Mara Takla HaymanotZagwe 
Germa SeyumSon of Mara Takla HaymanotZagwe 
Yemrehana KrestosSon of Germa SeyumZagwe 
Kedus HarbeSon of Jan SeyumZagwe 
Gebre Mesqel Lalibela11811221Son of Jan SeyumZagwe 
Na'akueto La'abSon of Kedus HarbeZagwe 
YetbarakSon of Gebre Mesqel LalibelaZagwe 
MairariZagwe 
HarbaiZagwe 

Solomonic dynastyEdit

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Yekuno Amlak
  • ይኩኖ አምላክ
Died 19 June 128510 August 127019 June 1285Solomonic 
Yagbe'u Seyon
  • ይግብአ ጽዮን
Died 129419 June 12851294Son of Yekuno AmlakSolomonic 
Senfa Ared IV
  • ሰይፈ አርድ አርብእቱ
12941295Son of Yagbe'u SeyonSolomonic 
Hezba Asgad
  • ሕዝበ አስግድ
12951296Son of Yagbe'u SeyonSolomonic 
Qedma Asgad
  • ቅድመ አስግድ
12961297Son of Yagbe'u SeyonSolomonic 
Jan Asgad
  • ጃን አሰግድ
12971298Son of Yagbe'u SeyonSolomonic 
Saba Asgad
  • ሳባ አሰገድ
12981299Son of Yagbe'u SeyonSolomonic 
Wedem Arad
  • ወደም አራድ
Died 131412991314Brother of Yagbe'u SeyonSolomonic 
Amda Seyon I
  • ዐምደ ጽዮን ቀዳማዊ
Died 134413141344Son of Wedem AradSolomonic 
Newaya Krestos
  • ንዋየ ክርስቶስ
Died 137213441372Son of Amda Seyon ISolomonic 
Newaya Maryam
  • ንዋየ ማርያም
Died 138213721382Son of Newaya KrestosSolomonic 
Dawit I
  • ዳዊት ቀዳማዊ
Died 6 October 141313826 October 1413Son of Newaya KrestosSolomonic 
Tewodros I
  • ቴዎድሮስ ቀዳማዊ
Died 141414131414Son of Dawit ISolomonic 
Yeshaq I
  • ይሥሓቅ ቀዳማዊ
Died 142914141429Son of Dawit ISolomonic 
Andreyas
  • እንድርያስ
Died 143014291430Son of Yeshaq ISolomonic 
Takla Maryam
  • ተክለ ማርያም
Died 143314301433Son of Dawit ISolomonic 
Sarwe Iyasus
  • ሥርወ ኢየሱስ
Died 143314331433Son of Takla MaryamSolomonic 
Amda Iyasus
  • ዐምደ ኢየሱስ
Died 143414331434Son of Takla MaryamSolomonic 
Zara Yaqob
  • ዘርዐ ያዕቆብ
1399 – 26 August 1468
(aged 69)
19/20 June 143426 August 1468Son of Dawit ISolomonic 
Baeda Maryam I
  • በእደ ማርያም ቀዳማዊ
1448 – 8 November 1478
(aged 30)
26 August 14688 November 1478Son of Zara YaqobSolomonic 
Eskender
  • እስክንድር
(1471-07-15)15 July 1471 – 7 May 1494(1494-05-07) (aged 22)14787 May 1494Son of Baeda Maryam ISolomonic 
Amda Seyon II
  • ዐምደ ጽዮን
c. 1487 – 26 October 1494
(aged approximately 7)
149426 October 1494Son of EskenderSolomonic 
Na'od
  • ናዖድ
Died 31 July 1508149431 July 1508Son of Baeda Maryam ISolomonic 
Dawit II or Libne Dengel
  • ዳዊት ዳግማዊ or ልብነ ድንግል
1501 – 2 September 1540
(aged 39)
15082 September 1540Son of Na'odSolomonic 
Gelawdewos
  • ገላውዴዎስ
1521/1522 – 23 March 1559
(aged 38–37)
3 September 154023 March 1559Son of Dawit IISolomonic 
Menas
  • ሚናስ
Died 1 February 156315591 February 1563Son of Dawit IISolomonic 
Sarsa Dengel
  • ሠርጸ ድንግል
1550 – 4 October 1597
(aged 47)
15634 October 1597Son of MenasSolomonic 
Yaqob
  • ያዕቆብ
c. 1590 – 10 March 16061597
1604
1603
10 March 1606
Son of Sarsa DengelSolomonic 
Za Dengel
  • ዘድንግል
Died 24 October 1604160324 October 1604Nephew of Sarsa DengelSolomonic 

Gondarine lineEdit

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Susenyos I
  • Susenyos the Catholic
  • ሱስንዮስ ቀዳማዊ
1572 – 17 September 1632
(aged 60)
160617 September 1632Grandson of Dawit IISolomonic 
Fasilides
  • ፋሲለደስ
1603 – 18 October 1667
(aged 64)
163218 October 1667Son of Susenyos ISolomonic 
Yohannes I
  • ዮሐንስ ቀዳማዊ
c. 1640 – 19 July 1682
(aged approximately 42)
166719 July 1682Son of FasilidesSolomonic 
Iyasu I
  • Iyasu the Great
  • ኢያሱ ቀዳማዊ
1654 – 13 October 1706
(aged 52)
19 July 168213 October 1706Son of Yohannes ISolomonic 
Yeshaq IyasuDied 168516851685Claimed to be grandson of Susenyos ISolomonic 
Tekle Haymanot I
  • Tekle Haymanot the Cursed
  • ተክለ ሃይማኖት ቀዳማዊ
(1684-03-28)28 March 1684 – 30 June 1708(1708-06-30) (aged 24)27 March 170630 June 1708Son of Iyasu ISolomonic 
Amda SeyonDied September 1707September 1707September 1707Non-Dynastic 
Tewoflos
  • ቴዎፍሎስ
Died 14 October 17111 July 170814 October 1711Son of FasilidesSolomonic 
Nebahne Yohannes1709July 1710Non-Dynastic 
Yostos
  • ዮስጦስ
Died 171614 October 171119 February 1716Grandson of Iyasu ISolomonic 
Dawit III
  • Dawit the Singer
  • ዳዊት ሣልሳዊ
1695 – 18 May 1721
(aged 26)
8 February 171618 May 1721Son of Iyasu ISolomonic 
Bakaffa
  • በካፋ
Died 19 September 173018 May 172119 September 1730Son of Iyasu ISolomonic 
Iyasu II
  • ኢያሱ ዳግማዊ
(1723-10-21)21 October 1723 – 27 June 1755(1755-06-27) (aged 31)19 September 173027 June 1755Son of BakaffaSolomonic 
Hezqeyas17361737Solomonic 
Iyoas I
  • ኢዮአስ ቀዳማዊ
c. 1740 – 14 May 1769
(aged approximately 29)
27 June 17557 May 1769Son of Iyasu IISolomonic 

Zemene MesafintEdit

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Yohannes II
  • ዮሐንስ ዳግማዊ
1699 – 18 October 1769
(aged 70)
7 May 176918 October 1769Son of Iyasu ISolomonic 
Tekle Haymanot II
  • ተክለ ሃይማኖት ዳግማዊ
1754 – 7 September 1777
(aged 23)
18 October 1769
December 1770
August 1770
13 April 1777
Son of Yohannes IISolomonic 
Susenyos II
  • ሱስንዮስ ዳግማዊ
Died c. 1771August 1770December 1770Possibly the illegitimate son of Iyasu IISolomonic 
Salomon II
  • ሰሎሞን ዳግማዊ
Died 178213 April 177720 July 1779Son of Abeto AdigoSolomonic 
Tekle Giyorgis I
  • ተክለ ጊዮርጊስ ቀዳማዊ
c. 1751 – 12 December 1817
(aged approximately 66)
20 July 1779
24 April 1788
January 1794
December 1795
4 January 1798
24 March 1800
8 February 1784
26 July 1789
15 April 1795
20 May 1796
20 May 1799
June 1800
Son of Yohannes IISolomonic 
Iyasu III
  • እያሱ ሣልሳዊ
Died by 181016 February 178424 April 1788Grandson of Iyasu IISolomonic 
IyasuDied May 181317871788In opposition to Iyasu IIINon-Dynastic 
Baeda Maryam17871788In opposition to Iyasu IIINon-Dynastic 
Tekle HaymanotDied before 1810February 17881789In opposition to Iyasu IIINon-Dynastic 
Hezqeyas
  • ሕዝቅያስ
Died 13 September 181326 July 1789January 1794Son of Iyasu IIISolomonic 
Baeda Maryam II
  • በእደ ማርያም ዳግማዊ
1749 – 1833
(aged 84)
15 April 1795December 1795Possibly son of Salomon IISolomonic 
Salomon III
  • ሰሎሞን ሣልሳዊ
20 May 1796
20 May 1799
15 July 1797
15 July 1799
Son of Tekle Haymanot IISolomonic 
Yonas
  • ዮናስ
Died May 181318 August 17974 January 1798Grandson of FasilidesSolomonic 
Demetros
  • ድሜጥሮስ
Died 180225 July 1799
June 1800
24 March 1800
June 1801
Son of ArqedewosNon-Dynastic 
Egwale Seyon
  • እጓለ ጽዮን
Died 12 June 1818June 180112 June 1818Son of HezqeyasSolomonic 
Iyoas II
  • ኢዮአስ ዳግማዊ
Died 3 June 182114 June 18183 June 1821Son of HezqeyasSolomonic 
Gigar
  • ጊጋር
c. 1745 – 26 November 1832
(aged approximately 87)
3 June 1821
April 1826
April 1826
18 June 1830
Possibly son of Iyasu IIPossibly Solomonic 
Baeda Maryam IIIApril 1826April 1826Non-Dynastic 
Iyasu IV
  • ኢያሱ አርባእዊ
18 June 183018 March 1832Son of Salomon IIISolomonic 
Gebre Krestos
  • ገብረ ክሪስቶስ
18 March 1832
1832
1832
8 June 1832
Allegedly a descendant of FasilidesSolomonic 
Sahle Dengel1778 – 11 February 1855
(aged 77)
1832
October 1832
October 1841
1845
1851
1832
29 August 1840
1845
1850
11 February 1855
Brother of Gebre KrestosSolomonic 
Egwale Anbesa18321832Non-Dynastic 
Yohannes III
  • ዮሐንስ ሣልሳዊ
c. 1797 – c. 1873
(aged approximately 76)
30 August 1840
1845
1850
October 1841
1845
1851
Son of Tekle Giyorgis ISolomonic 

Tewodros dynastyEdit

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Tewodros II
  • ቴዎድሮስ
c. 1818 – 13 April 1868
(aged approximately 47)
11 February 185513 April 1868[a]Son of Haile Giorgis Wolde GiorgisClaimed the Solomonic lineage later in his reign 

Zagwe dynastyEdit

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Tekle Giyorgis II
  • ተክለ ጊዮርጊስ ዳግማዊ
Died c. 187311 June 186811 July 1871Son of Wagshum Gebre MedhinClaimed the Zagwe lineage through his father[b] 

Solomonic dynastyEdit

Tigrayan lineEdit

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Yohannes IV
  • ዮሓንስ አርባእዊ
(1837-07-11)11 July 1837 – 10 March 1889(1889-03-10) (aged 51)11 July 187110 March 1889[c]Son of Dejazmatch MerchaSolomonic 

Shewan lineEdit

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Menelik II[d]
  • ምኒልክ ዳግማዊ
(1844-08-17)17 August 1844 – 12 December 1913(1913-12-12) (aged 69)10 March 188912 December 1913Son of Negus Haile MelekotSolomonic 
Lij Iyasu[e]
  • Iyasu V[f]
  • ልጅ ኢያሱ
(1895-02-04)4 February 1895 – 25 November 1935(1935-11-25) (aged 40)12 December 191327 September 1916Grandson of Menelik IISolomonic 
Zewditu I[g]
  • ዘውዲቱ
(1876-04-29)29 April 1876 – 2 April 1930(1930-04-02) (aged 53)27 September 19162 April 1930[h]Daughter of Menelik IISolomonic 
Haile Selassie I[i][j][k]
  • ኀይለ ሥላሴ ቀዳማዊ
(1892-07-23)23 July 1892 – 27 August 1975(1975-08-27) (aged 83)[1]2 April 1930[l]12 September 1974[m]Son of Ras Makonnen Wolde MikaelSolomonic 
Amha Selassie I[n][o]
  • Crown Prince Asfaw Wossen
  • አምሃ ሥላሴ
(1916-07-27)27 July 1916 – 17 January 1997(1997-01-17) (aged 80)[6]12 September 197421 March 1975[7]Son of Haile Selassie ISolomonic 

House of SavoyEdit

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Victor Emmanuel III
  • Vittorio Emanuele III
    ቪቶርዮ አማኑኤል
    (Vītoriyo Āmanu’ēli)
(1869-11-11)11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947(1947-12-28) (aged 78)14 May 1936[8]De jure renounced the title in November 1943[9]
(de facto loss of control in April 1941[10])
King of Italy, proclaimed Emperor of Ethiopia after Italian victory in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War; the title was contested by Haile Selassie in exile. Italian defeat in the East African campaign of World War II ended Italian pretensions of rulership over Ethiopia.Savoy 

Timeline from 1855Edit

Amha SelassieVictor Emmanuel III of ItalyHaile SelassieZewdituLij Iyasu of EthiopiaMenelik IIYohannes IVTekle Giyorgis IITewodros IIHouse of SavoySolomonic dynastyZagwe dynasty

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Committed suicide at the end of the Battle of Magdala.
  2. ^ Also claimed the Solomonic lineage through his mother.
  3. ^ Killed in the Battle of Gallabat.
  4. ^ Previously King of Shewa from 1855 to 1856, and from 1865 to 1889. Ruled under the regency of Ras Betwoded Tessema Nadew from 1909 to 1911 and Lij Iyasu from 1911 to 1913.
  5. ^ Never officially crowned as Emperor. Deposed by nobility with the sanction of the Church.
  6. ^ Lij Iyasu was never referred to as "Iyasu V" or as an emperor during his rule, either by Ethiopians or by foreigners. Thus, in the treaty of commerce signed between the United States and Ethiopia in June 1914, the ruler of Ethiopia is referred to as "His Royal Highness, Prince Lidj Yassou". [1]
  7. ^ Ruled under the regency of Ras Tafari Makonnen (future Emperor Haile Selassie I).
  8. ^ Died in the immediate aftermath of the Gugsa Wale's rebellion.
  9. ^ De facto ruler of the country as regent from 1916 to 1930. Crowned as King in 1928.
  10. ^ Exiled from 2 May 1936 to 5 April 1941, during the Italian occupation. During that time, the title was claimed by the King of Italy Victor Emmanuel III.
  11. ^ Briefly deposed during the 1960 coup d'état attempt.
  12. ^ Crowned on 2 November 1930.[2]
  13. ^ Deposed by the Derg.[3][4]
  14. ^ Proclaimed Emperor by the Imperial Guards during the 1960 coup d'état attempt.
  15. ^ Designated "King" (not Emperor) by the Derg while out of the country,[5] did not take throne.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Alden Whitman (28 August 1975). "Haile Selassie of Ethiopia Dies at 83". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  2. ^ "Emperor is Crowned in Regal Splendor at African Capital". The New York Times. 3 November 1930. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
  3. ^ "REMOVAL IS QUIET". The New York Times. 13 September 1974. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  4. ^ Paul Hofmann (13 September 1974). "The Lion at Sunset". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  5. ^ "Ethiopian Crown Prince Hears News of Succession on Radio". The New York Times. 13 September 1974. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
  6. ^ David Orr (2 February 1997). "Funeral brings the royals back to Ethiopia". The Independent. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  7. ^ "Ethiopia's Military Government Abolishes Monarchy and Titles". The New York Times. 22 March 1975. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  8. ^ Arnaldo Cortesi (15 May 1936). "CHAMBER CONFIRMS EMPIRE FOR ITALY; Cheers for Army and Duce Mark Session Ratifying Ethiopia's Annexation". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  9. ^ Indro Montanelli, Mario Cervi, Storia d'italia. L'Italia della guerra civile, RCS, 2003.
  10. ^ "THE FALL OF ADDIS ABABA". The New York Times. 7 April 1941. Retrieved 18 January 2021.

External linksEdit