List of kings of Axum

The kings of Axum ruled an important trading state in the area which is now Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, from approximately 100–940 AD.[1]

Zenith of the Kingdom of AxumEdit

Dates of Tenure Name Notes
c. 10 B.C. Bazen
c. 100 Za Haqala (possibly Nza ya Nkla or Zoskales)
c. 200 GDRT
(vocalized by historians as "Gadarat")
inscriptions mention his son BYGT (vocalized as "Beygat" or "Beyga")
c. 230 – c.240 `DBH
(vocalized as "`Azaba" or "`Adhebah")
inscriptions mention his son GRMT (vocalized as "Girma")
c. 250 Sembrouthes
c. 260 DTWNS
(vocalized as "Datawnas")
inscriptions mention his son ZQRNS (vocalized as "Zaqarnas")
c. 270 – c.300 Endubis
fl. early 4th century Aphilas
fl. early 4th century Mzamba
c. 320 Ousanas
c. 333 – c. 356 Ezana
c. 350 MHDYS
(vocalized as "Mehadeyis")
fl. late 4th century Ouazebas
c. 400 Eon possibly the "Unina" from the Book of the Himyarites
fl. 5th century Ebana
fl. 5th century Nezool also called "N'zana"
c. 500 Ousas,
also spelled "Ousana(s)"
possibly Tazena, father of Kaleb
c. 520 Kaleb tradition names his son Gabra Masqal
fl. mid 6th century Alla Amidas
fl. mid 6th century Wazena
fl. mid 6th century W`ZB
vocalized as "Wa`zabe"
possibly "Ella Gabaz", son of Kaleb
fl. mid 6th century Ioel
c. 575 Hataz identified with "Iathlia"
c. 577 Saifu
c. 590 Israel tradition also records an Israel, son of Kaleb
c. 600 Gersem
c. 614 Najashi possibly identical with Sahama
died c. 630 Sahama tradition also records an Ella Tsaham (Illa Ṣaḥām)

Later kingsEdit

Name Notes Dates
(E. A. Wallis Budge)[2]
(Tafari Makannon/Charles Fernand Rey)[3]
(Gregorian Dates)[nb 1]
(John Stewart)[5]
Kwastantinos or "Constantine" All kings ruled between 600-900 c. 544-572 564-578
Wasan Sagad Bazagar? c. 572-587 578-591
Fere Shanay or Fere Shernay c. 587-610 591-601
'Adre'az or 'Adre'azar c. 610-630 601-623
'Akla Wedem or Eklewudem[5] c. 630-638 623-633
Germa Safar c. 638-653 633-648
Zergaz or Gergaz c. 653-663 648-656
Degna Mikael c. 663-689 656-677
Bahr Ikela c. 689-708 677-696
Gum or Hezba Seyon[5] c. 708-732 696-720
'Asgwomgum c. 732-737 720-725
Letem c. 737-753 725-741
Talatem c. 753-774 741-762
'Oda Gosh or 'Oda Sasa / or Adegos[5] c. 774-787 762-775
'Ayzur who reigned half a day and was strangled to death c. 787 775
Dedem or Dedem Almaz[5] c. 787-782 775-780
Wededem c. 782-802 780-790
Wedem 'Asfare or Demawedem[5] c. 802-832 790-820
'Armah or Rema Armah[5] c. 832-837 820-825
Degna Djan or Ged'a Djan c. 837-856 825-845
Ged'a Djan Not listed as a separate king by Budge c. 856-857 845-846
Gudit (Queen) Not included on Budge's list c. 857-897 846-885
'Anbasa Wedem son of Degna Djan All kings reigned from 600-900 c. 897-917 885-905
Dil Na'od son of Degna Djan c. 917-927 905-c.950


  1. ^ The dates included on Tafari Makannon's king list follow the Ethiopian calendar. According to Charles Fernand Rey, the Gregorian date equivalent would be 7 or 8 years ahead.[4]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ S.C. Munro-Hay, Aksum (Edinburgh: University Press, 1991), pp. 67f
  2. ^ E. A. Wallis Budge, A History of Ethiopia: Nubia and Abyssinia, 1928 (Oosterhout, the Netherlands: Anthropological Publications, 1970), pp. 269f
  3. ^ C. F. Rey, In the Country of the Blue Nile (1927), Camelot Press, London, pg. 270-271
  4. ^ C. F. Rey, In the Country of the Blue Nile (1927), Camelot Press, London, pg. 263
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Stewart, John (2005). African States and Rulers. London: McFarland. p. 23. ISBN 0-7864-2562-8.