International Rugby League
The International Rugby League (IRL) is the global governing body for the sport of rugby league football. Previously known as the Rugby League Imperial Board, the International Rugby League Board and latterly the Rugby League International Federation, the IRL is responsible for the Laws of the Game, the development, organisation and governance of rugby leagues internationally, and for the sport's major international tournaments; most notably the Rugby League World Cup.
|Formation||1927(as the Rugby League Imperial Board)|
|Type||Federation of national associations|
|Headquarters||Sydney/Leeds (NRL/RFL headquarters)|
|68 national associations|
|Affiliations||Rugby League European Federation|
- 1 History
- 2 Structure
- 3 Laws of the game
- 4 International eligibility
- 5 Competitions
- 6 Recognitions and awards
- 7 International rankings
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
1895–1926: Rugby league foundationsEdit
Rugby league, which had started in England in 1895 and spread to Wales in 1907 and Australia and New Zealand in 1908, was introduced into France in 1934 after their rugby union side was banned from the International Rugby Board for both breaching amateur regulations and for constant foul play on the field.
1927–1947: Imperial Rugby League BoardEdit
The Imperial Rugby League Board was formed in 1927. The Rugby Football League's authority in the sport was supported by having a majority of the representatives on the Board. The RFL had three representatives while Australia and New Zealand each had one. According to Collins (2000), the imbalanced voting rights were a result of the RFL being the representative for the "mother country" and the other members being keen to demonstrate their loyalty to the Crown.
In 1935 the French Rugby League proposed the constitution of an international board for rugby league, but the Australians were not favourable, and the idea was abandoned for a while.
1948–1997: International Rugby League BoardEdit
The Board was formed on 25 January 1948 in Bordeaux, France at the impetus of the French, led by Paul Barrière. The Fédération Française de Rugby à XIII, New Zealand Rugby League and Britain's Rugby Football League met during the 1947–48 Kiwi tour of Europe and these three governing bodies agreed to form the International Rugby League Board (IRLB). At the meeting, it was decided that initially the RFL would oversee the sport's rules while the IRLB developed. The Australian Rugby League joined the IRLB some months later.
In the view of Harry Edgar, from the Board's establishment "until his death in 1986, Bill Fallowfield was a dominant figure in its activities. Always a keen student of the rules of the game, [Fallowfield], like Australia's Tom Bellew in more recent times, strove to establish uniformity in the rules between all nations".
Former RFL Chief Executive David Oxley, an attendee of International Board meetings for close to 20 years, confirmed that proceedings were not dominated by the Australians: "Despite their dominance of the game on the field, the Aussies did not get everything their own way on the old Board because frequently the New Zealanders were at loggerheads with them. The Kiwis would vote against the Aussies, and France would vote with Great Britain, leaving Papua New Guinea as Australia's only guaranteed supporter."
Oxley reveals, "a lot of the really positive things were initiated by the British - certainly on rule changes, and the move to actually expand the role of the Board." Oxley states: "it was a British idea to introduce the levy on all Test match receipts to go into an international development fund. It was only 2 percent, but it did apply to television broadcast fees as well as gate receipts, so it built up into sizeable amounts, and it was that fund that paid for all we did in Russia, South Africa and the fine work done by Bob Abbott in the South Pacific, plus a significant part of the Student World Cup."
Oxley says that Kevin Humphries may have dominated for the Australians for a time but that was due to his personality. At that time the Board's role was mostly restricted to discussion of rule changes. Oxley states that it was the British who "established the procedure that the Board should meet on a more regular basis - at least once a year - and should look at ways of helping the expansion of the game."
After 1948, when only four sanctioned international teams being overseen by the IRLB and competing in annual competition, the IRLB grew to see twelve full member nations join the federation along with around thirty member nations and countless affiliates.
In 1954, the Rugby League World Cup, the first for either code of rugby, was formed at the instigation of the French.
In 1966, the International Board introduced a rule ending unlimited tackles and instead allowing the team in possession three play-the-balls followed by forming a scrum on the fourth tackle. This was increased to six tackles in 1972 and in 1983 the scrum was replaced by a handover.
The Australians had always been strong in supporting expansion of the game including places such as "South Africa, America and Canada". The Australians even took a lead role in aiding the game in France, in what might be considered the British sphere of influence, the ARL funded Tas Baitieri in a Development Officer position and they also provided coaching and player assistance and continued to have the Kangaroos tour France despite the costs.
After the Australian Rugby League introduced the World Sevens in 1988, the International Board took a much more active part in worldwide developments. Harry Edgar states: "Much of the successful participation in the 1995 World Cup came as a direct result of the ARL's World Sevens tournament"; "the game in Fiji was launched solely because of [the] World Sevens."
Some nations were introduced to international rugby league through the British Amateur Rugby League Association (BARLA). The RFL would often feel embarrassment at meetings when they "could claim to have done so little" while BARLA was praised by other attendees.
The 1995 World Cup was the "swansong of the original Board". With the Super League war started, the Board held what would be their last meeting immediately before that tournament, it ended "acrimoniously" as every member nation except Australia "stated their intention to withdraw their membership" and to establish the Super League International Board (SLIB) to govern Super League worldwide. The agreements that the former IRLB members signed with Super League had the effect of "usurping" the international board's control and diminishing the influence of its director-general, the Australian Rugby League's chairman, Ken Arthurson. The agreements removed international playing opposition for the Australian Rugby League's representative sides.
The SLIB gave its Pacific island members full voting rights in a display of its democratic values towards the game, although some were sceptical that the representatives of the powerful richer nations would allow themselves to be overruled. The Pacific island nations were only associate members of the IRLB with only the full members Australia, Great Britain, France, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea having a vote.
1998–2019: Rugby League International FederationEdit
In 1998, the Super League International Board was disestablished and replaced by a new organisation, the Rugby League International Federation, as the Super League war ended in Australia and international rugby league reunited. The replacement saw worldwide governance of rugby league handed back to the sport's national governing bodies.
The meeting in Sydney at which it was agreed to form the RLIF was held at the request of the Australian and New Zealand Rugby Leagues. Britain was represented by the Rugby Football League, rather than Super League (Europe), the company formed by its leading clubs.
John McDonald, chair of the Australian Rugby League, became chair of the RLIF. Maurice Lindsay, the chairman of the Super League International Board (SLIB), was bypassed after he had suggested that the SLIB, with him leading it, should carry on the governance of the international game. Lindsay's candidature was weak due to his role in the Super League war. The cessation of Super League operations in Australasia and the notice that had been given of the SLIB's intention to cease funding the sport in the Pacific islands, meant the SLIB could be left with only Britain left as a member. The French were happy to cut ties with SLIB and join the new Federation as, allegedly, "they never saw a penny of the ₤1 million they believed they had been promised to sign up with Super League".
In 1998, there was regret that rugby league had been so badly damaged, Harry Edgar, a rugby league writer, warned, "there can be no place for politics or individuals seeking personal glorification" as the "international game picks up the pieces after three years of bitter fall-out".
The RLIF's scheduling of competitions made shortly after its formation, specifically the timing of world cups, was criticised by Graham Clay, editor of Open Rugby magazine for opting for a four-yearly cycle beginning in 2002 that would mean rugby league facing strong competition from other major sporting events for corporate sponsorship. During the build-up to the 2008 World Cup, which had been timed to coincide with Australia's Centenary of Rugby League celebrations, it was stated and confirmed afterwards that the following tournament in the United Kingdom would be held in 2013 to avoid the 2012 Summer Olympics in London and that subsequent World Cups would be contested on a four-year cycle.
The absence of a formal schedule of international competition has been criticised as leaving the sport "weak in international development, and in finances to help the game survive and grow outside the UK and Australia". Some moves have been made to correct this though, with the RFL's Richard Lewis proposing a ten-year international plan in 2007.
In 2009 the member nations agreed that the RLIF should negotiate over sponsorship, licensing and broadcast rights for international rugby league rather than the member nations.
As of 2009, the RLIF imposed a levy of 10% on net gate receipts at all international matches, providing the International Federation with revenues. The RLIF makes grants to member nations to help foster the game but the effectiveness of these has been questioned.
However, PIRLF was not formally recognised by the RLIF, as consideration was being given to modernising the RLIF constitution and membership structure. The Wales Rugby League were granted full membership of the RLIF in 2010 at a meeting in Melbourne, Australia.
At a special general meeting held in Auckland, New Zealand, in November 2010, a new constitution was approved that gave New Zealand, Australia and England permanent seats on the RLIF board, with provision made for an additional seat each by May 2011 for the RLEF and a soon-to-be-formed Asia-Pacific Rugby League Confederation (APRLC), once RLEF and APRLC were granted Associate Membership status by the RLIF.
The APRLC was incorporated in April 2011 with member nations New Zealand, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, Samoa, Fiji and the Cook Islands.
Scotland and Ireland were each granted full membership of the RLIF, and the RLEF and APRLC Associate Membership, at the annual general meeting held in Auckland, New Zealand, in May 2011. A new Chairman, Scott Carter was also elected, becoming the first Kiwi to hold the role. This prompted a walkout by the Rugby Football League's Richard Lewis who believed he should have succeeded Australia's Colin Love.
Serbia and Lebanon were each granted full membership of the RLIF at the annual general meeting held in Manchester, England in May 2012. Ukraine, Russia and Jamaica were granted full membership in 2013.
Nigel Wood was elected as Chairman in 2014 following and oversaw reforms, including the appointment of the first full-time CEO, former England and Wales Cricket Board CEO David Collier. In February 2018, John Grant was appointed as the new Chairman of the RLIF
2019–present: International Rugby LeagueEdit
On 14 October 2019, the RLIF board voted to officially change its name to International Rugby League with the change taking effect the next day.
- Governs teams in Asia, Oceania and the Pacific.
- Governs teams in Europe, Africa, Middle East and North America.
|Peter Beattie||Vice Chair||Australia|
|Ralph Rimmer||Member of the Executive||England|
|John Bishop||Member of the Executive||New Zealand|
|Charles Carlson||Member of the Executive||Cook Islands|
|Sandis Tsaka||Member of the Executive||Papua New Guinea|
|Reon Edwards||Member of the Executive||New Zealand|
|Todd Greenberg||Member of the Executive||Australia|
|Nigel Wood||Chief Executive Officer||England|
|Australia||Australian Rugby League Commission||1998||Asia-Pacific Confederation|
|Cook Islands||Cook Islands Rugby League||1998|
|Fiji||Fiji National Rugby League||1998|
|New Zealand||New Zealand Rugby League||1998|
|Papua New Guinea||Papua New Guinea Rugby Football League||1998|
|Samoa||Rugby League Samoa||1998|
|Tonga||Tonga National Rugby League||1998|
|England||Rugby Football League||1998||European Federation|
|France||French Rugby League Federation||1998|
|Ireland||Rugby League Ireland||2011|
|Italy||Federazione Italiana Rugby League||2017|
|Jamaica||Jamaica Rugby League Association||2013|
|Lebanon||Lebanese Rugby League Federation||2012|
|Russia||Russian Rugby League Federation||2013|
|Scotland||Scotland Rugby League||2011|
|Serbia||Serbian Rugby League||2012|
|South Africa||South African Rugby League||1998|
|Ukraine||Ukrainian Federation of Rugby League||2013|
|Wales||Wales Rugby League||2010|
- 1998 was the foundation year
Laws of the gameEdit
The laws of rugby league have been the responsibility of the RLIF since its formation in 1998. Before that the Rugby Football League and IRLB, after its inception in 1948, were the bodies that maintained the Laws.
The International Federation in conjunction with the nations governing bodies (mainly the Australian Rugby League, Fédération Française de Rugby à XIII, New Zealand Rugby League and the Rugby Football League) often meet on a semi-regular basis of up to four times per year to make changes or decide new rules; although all test playing nations have a say in the altering of the rules and laws of rugby league.
The RLIF reiterated in 2008 that a player may represent a country if it is the country of their parents or any of their grandparents' birth or if that country has been the player's "principal country of residence" for three years up until the date of the player's selection. A player may also be selected for country that they have represented in international rugby league in any age level before the 1998 introduction of the RLIF's constitution, or a country which the player has represented in a senior international competition in any other sport.
In 2009, international qualification regulations were modified in response to dissatisfaction about players representing different nations too easily. Players who have represented one country in World Cup qualifiers would now "not be permitted" to play for a different one in the World Cup tournament. The rule change did not apply to players who had played for a country in a Test series or non-World Cup related tournament. Applications must still be made to the RLIF for those changes still permitted.
The game in Europe is only partially overseen by the Rugby League International Federation with the Rugby League European Federation also having a large say in the running and expansion of the game throughout Europe.
The RLIF oversees the international game of rugby league, including the Rugby League World Cup, first held in 1954 in France and the first competition to be officially known as the "Rugby World Cup". Since then the World Cup has been held a total of 14 times, with the most recent Cup being held in England and Wales during 2013 which was eventually won by Australia. The next event is due to be held in 2017. The RLIF has also sanctioned and overseen the Women's Rugby League World Cup since its inception in 2000. The tournament is now held in conjunction with the men's tournament every time that it is held every four years.
The RLIF also runs the Four Nations series between the Big Three powers, England, Australia and New Zealand and a fourth nation from either Europe or the South Pacific depending on where the competition is being played as the hosts are alternate between England and Oceana. The current winners are New Zealand after they hosted the tournament with Australia in 2014. The next series will be hosted by England in 2016.
- Pacific Rugby League International are regular competitions between teams in the South Pacific and are used as qualifiers for World Cups and Four Nations.
- Rugby League Emerging Nations Tournament is a tournament between affiliate members and nations with goals of growing the game of rugby league.
- Americas Cup is a competition between Canada, Jamaica and the US.
- Colonial Cup is a competition between the US and Canada.
- South America Cup is a competition between Argentina, Brazil and Chile.
Recognitions and awardsEdit
The RLIF makes several international awards annually, beginning in 2004, including International Newcomer of the Year, Developing Nations Player of the Year, International Coach of the Year, International Back of the Year, International Forward of the Year and International Referee of the Year.
The RLIF publishes and maintains the World Rankings of the men's national rugby league teams. The concept was first launched in January 2007 following in the footsteps of the European Rankings published by the Rugby League European Federation.
The RLIF World Rankings are calculated based on an average of points accumulated by each Nation over a three-year cycle. Under the structure, matches deemed of higher importance such as World Cup games, Tri-Nations and other major tournament finals draw more points than mid-season Tests and other ‘Internationals’. For each match that a nation participates they are given a base level of points. This base level is affected upon the type of match and the status of the opponent.
Bonus points are given for teams that reach certain milestones deemed of significant international importance including reaching a tournament final or qualifying for an event such as a World Cup.
From the total number of points that a nation will receive these points are then averaged to help give a more accurate view of the performance of a nation over the three-year cycle.
Nations which have played less than a certain number of matches deemed acceptable over a three-year cycle will be penalised under the current point structure.
- "RLIF confirms Nines World Cup, Oceania Cup in 2019". NRL.com. 11 November 2018.
- Collins, Tony (May 2000). "From Bondi to Batley: Australian players in British rugby league 1907-1995". Journal of the Australian Society for Sports History. Sporting Traditions. LA84 Foundation. 16 (2): 77. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- "Suggested Imperial Rugby League". The Sydney Morning Herald. Sydney. 13 April 1927. Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- Edgar, Harry (1998), "Can League conquer the world?", Open Rugby, Brighouse, UK: League Publications (published September 1998) (210), pp. 14–17, ISSN 0958-5427
- Goodman, Tom. "Board urges trial of new R.L. rule". The Sydney Morning Herald. p. 7. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
- Collins, Tony (18 April 2006). Rugby League in Twentieth Century Britain (1 ed.). Routledge. pp. 113–114. ISBN 978-0-415-39615-8.
- Hadfield, Dave (24 April 1995). "France and PNG to join exodus". The Independent. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- Hadfield, Dave (20 December 1995). "Rugby league falling into the lawyers' hands". The Independent. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- Clay, Graham, ed. (1998), Open Rugby, Brighouse, UK: League Publications (published September 1998) (210), p. 14, ISSN 0958-5427 Missing or empty
- Hadfield, Dave (20 August 1998). "Lindsay suffers body blow". The Independent. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- John Coffey, Bernie Wood (2008). 100 Years: Maori Rugby League, 1908-2008. Huia Publishers. p. 300. ISBN 9781869693312. Retrieved 30 November 2009.
- Edgar, Harry (1998), "France look for outside help", Open Rugby, Brighouse, UK: League Publications (published September 1998) (210), p. 16, ISSN 0958-5427
- Clay, Graham (1998), "League's lost opportunities", Open Rugby, Brighouse, UK: League Publications (published September 1998) (210), p. 6, ISSN 0958-5427
- Hampson, Andy (1 August 2009). "2013 World Cup set for 12-team format in UK game's heartlands". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 December 2009.
- SPARC, 2009: 27
- Mascord, Steve (5 August 2009). "Discord #17: International RL to get centralised deals, Soward's kick & much more". rleague.com. Archived from the original on 2 January 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2009.
- SPARC, 2009: 25
- SPARC, 2009: 26
- "Pacific Islands rugby league body formed". Solomon Star. 8 December 2009. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- "Wales given 2013 World Cup spot". BBC Sport. 7 May 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- "RLIF rebrands as International Rugby League". Sport Business. 15 October 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- "Italy Promoted to Full Member Status of RLIF". RLIF. 16 March 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- "Rugby League's international body RLIF has welcomed Russia, Ukraine and Jamaica to full membership". SBS. 26 October 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- "Lebanon & Serbia promoted to full members of RLIF". NRL.com. 7 May 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- SPARC, 2009: 24
- "World Cup rules spelled out". Sky Sports. 31 July 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2009.
- Mascord, Steve (4 November 2009). "Eligibility rules tightened for league". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 6 December 2009.
- SPARC, 2009: 28
- Mascord, Steve (23 February 2017). "In the world of international rugby league, rebellion is in the air ... again". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 16 March 2017.