|Father||Rudolf I, Duke of Bavaria|
|Mother||Mechtild of Nassau|
During his childhood, his father and his uncle fought over their inheritance. After the death of his father, his family was placed under the guardianship of Duke Johann von Nassau, who was a partisan of the Austrian cause.
His uncle, Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor had taken the Palatinate by force of arms. In August 1322, the war finally came to an end, but only after Mechthild's death in June 1323, were the three nephews finally able to make peace with their uncle. His sons inherited Bavaria and Rudolf I's sons inherited the Upper Palatinate and the Palatinate in line with the Treaty of Pavia.
He was blind only in the last years of his life.
Rudolph married twice:
- In 1328, he married Anne of Carinthia-Tyrol (1300 – 31 October 1331), daughter of Duke Otto III of Carinthia
- In 1348, he married Margaret of Sicily (1331 – 1377), daughter of King Frederick II of Sicily and Eleanor of Anjou.
He died in Neustadt.