Richard Talbot (archbishop of Dublin)
Richard Talbot (c. 1390 – 15 August 1449) was an English-born statesman and cleric in fifteenth-century Ireland. He was a younger brother of John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury. He held the offices of Archbishop of Dublin and Lord Chancellor of Ireland. He was one of the leading political figures in Ireland for more than thirty years, but his career was marked by controversy and frequent conflicts with other statesmen. In particular his quarrel with the powerful Earl of Ormonde was the main cause of the Butler–Talbot feud, which dominated Irish politics for decades, and seriously weakened the authority of the English Crown in Ireland.
He was the third son of Richard Talbot, 4th Baron Talbot, and his wife Ankaret le Strange. His elder brothers were Gilbert Talbot, 5th Baron Talbot and John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury. He seems to have entered the Church while he was still in his early teens. He became prebendary of Hereford Cathedral and York Cathedral, and Dean of Chichester in 1415. In 1416, when still only about twenty-five, he was elected Archbishop of Armagh but failed to secure Papal confirmation of his election. The following year he was consecrated Archbishop of Dublin.
Archbishop of DublinEdit
He was an active and reforming Archbishop, who established a new corporation in St. Patrick's Cathedral and founded chantries in St. Michael's Church, Dublin (which he converted into a parish church) and St. Audoen's Church. His rule as Archbishop was marked by a long-running conflict with John Swayne, who had become Archbishop of Armagh in 1418, two years after Talbot failed to obtain confirmation of his election to that see. Talbot revived an old dispute about primacy between the sees of Dublin and Armagh, and refused to accept the right of Swayne to call himself Primate of Ireland. Swayne was equally intransigent: in 1429 he refused to attend a session of the Irish Parliament in Leinster if his primacy was not acknowledged.
Richard's elder brother John, the future 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland between 1414 and 1420 and again in 1425 and in 1446-7. Richard acted as Lord Deputy of Ireland during his brother's Lieutenancy, and also as Justiciar of Ireland. In 1423 he was appointed Lord Chancellor of Ireland and held the latter office for most of the next twenty years.
The condition of English rule in Ireland at this time has been described as "a chronic state of imbecility, folly and corruption". Talbot was at least prepared to act firmly: in 1419 he arrested Christopher Preston, 2nd Baron Gormanston and other members of the nobility on suspicion of treason, although nothing came of these charges, which probably had no basis in fact. Inevitably he made enemies: in 1426 he was deprived of the Lord Chancellorship but he was soon restored to office. A more serious crisis arose in 1429 when he was accused of fomenting rebellion, and summoned to London to account for his actions. Clearly the English Council was satisfied with his defence since he was not deprived of office.
The charges against Talbot may have been connected with the long-running feud between the Talbots and James Butler, 4th Earl of Ormonde. Shrewsbury had previously been accused of "harsh treatment" of Ormonde, and his brother intensified the quarrel, to the point where Anglo-Irish politics became increasingly split between the Talbot and Butler factions. The Talbot faction was dominant in the 1430s, when there was a brief lull in the feud, but in 1442 the appointment of Ormonde as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland caused the feud to break out with fresh bitterness. Talbot was sent to London to ask for an English Lord Lieutenant to replace Ormonde, and produced an extraordinary document which he claimed was the petition of the Irish Parliament against Ormonde (it is unclear if in fact the Parliament had authorised it).
Talbot denounced Ormonde as an old and feeble man (in fact he was fifty, some years younger than Talbot himself), who was unfit to keep order in Ireland. He was accused of having lost most of his property through his own negligence; there were vague references to treason and "crimes not fit for a bishop to speak of". The Council felt that it could not ignore the charges, and Ormonde was summoned to London to account for his actions. He defended himself with great vigour and was allowed to keep his office. He made numerous counter-charges against Talbot, including a charge of assaulting two senior members of the Government, Robert Dyke, the Master of the Rolls in Ireland, and Hugh Banent, Lord High Treasurer of Ireland. The English Council in the end rebuked both sides to the dispute for weakening the Irish government by "creating divisions and rumours among the King's men".
Relations between the Talbots and the Butlers did eventually improve, and to mark the two families' reconciliation, Ormonde's daughter Elizabeth married Shrewsbury's son and heir, the future 2nd Earl. Talbot was removed from the office of Lord Chancellor, though he acted as Justiciar of Ireland and as Lord Deputy during his brother's final term of office. He showed his usual spirit by refusing a second chance to become Archbishop of Armagh when Swayne at last retired in 1439.
Richard Talbot was undoubtedly a man of great intelligence and strong character: O'Flanagan thought him a man in every way as remarkable as his brother "the great Earl of Shrewsbury". On the other hand, he had serious character flaws, being high-handed, quarrelsome and undiplomatic. His feud with Archbishop Swayne weakened the authority of the Church; and his quarrel with Ormonde, which seems to have been personal rather than political, is generally agreed to have been a major factor in seriously damaging English rule in Ireland. Even in a turbulent age when cases of assault and even murder were common enough it was notable that Talbot, despite his clerical office, was prepared to use violence, as shown by the accusation in 1442 that he beat up two senior members of the Irish Council, Hugh Banent and Robert Dyke.
- O'Flanagan, J. Roderick Lives of the Lord Chancellors of Ireland London 2 Volumes 1870
- O'Flanagan Lives of the Irish Chancellors
- Possibly the same Hugh Banent who had been appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer of Ireland in 1399, though he would have been a very old man by 1440.
- Otway-Ruthven, J. A. History of Medieval Ireland Barnes and Noble 1993
- Otway-Ruthven Medieval Ireland
- Lives of the Irish Chancellors