Rhinoceros (typically abbreviated Rhino, or Rhino3D) is a commercial 3D computer graphics and computer-aided design (CAD) application software developed by Robert McNeel & Associates, an American, privately-held, employee-owned company founded in 1980. Rhinoceros geometry is based on the NURBS mathematical model, which focuses on producing mathematically precise representation of curves and freeform surfaces in computer graphics (as opposed to polygon mesh-based applications).
|Developer(s)||Robert McNeel & Associates|
Rhino 6.0 / February 6, 2018
|Operating system||Microsoft Windows, macOS|
|Type||3D computer graphics, Computer-aided design|
Rhinoceros is used in processes of computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), rapid prototyping, 3D printing and reverse engineering in industries including architecture, industrial design (e.g. automotive design, watercraft design), product design (e.g. jewelry design) as well as for multimedia and graphic design.
Rhinoceros is primarily a free form surface modeler that utilizes the NURBS mathematical model. Rhinoceros' application architecture and open SDK makes it modular and enables the user to customize the interface and create custom commands and menus. There are dozens of plug-ins available from both McNeel and other software companies that complement and expand Rhinoceros' capabilities in specific fields like rendering and animation, architecture, marine, jewelry, engineering, prototyping, and others.
The Rhinoceros file format (.3DM) is useful for the exchange of NURBS geometry. The Rhino developers started the openNURBS Initiative to provide computer graphics software developers the tools to accurately transfer 3-D geometry between applications. An open-source toolkit, openNURBS includes the 3DM file format specification, documentation, C++ source code libraries and .NET 2.0 assemblies to read and write the file format, on supported platforms (Windows, Windows x64, Mac, and Linux). The McNeel Wiki has more current information.
When opening CAD file formats not in its native .3dm file format, Rhinoceros will convert the geometry into its native format; when importing a CAD file the geometry is added to the current file.
When AutoDesk AutoCAD's file format changes (see DWG file format for more information), the Open Design Alliance reverse engineers the file format to allow these files to be loaded by other vendors' software. Rhinoceros' import and export modules are actually plug-ins so they can be easily updated via a service release. Rhinoceros service releases (SR) are frequent and freely downloadable. Rhinoceros 5 SR10 can import and export DWG/DXF file formats up to version 2014.
Rhinoceros is also compatible with a number of graphic design based programs. Among them is Adobe Illustrator. This method is best when working with a vector base file. Start by saving the file and when promoted save as Adobe Illustrator (*ai) from there you are able to control the vectors created in Rhinoceros and can be further enhanced in Adobe Illustrator.
Rhinoceros 3D relies on a few plug-ins that facilitate 3D printing  and allows the export of the .STL and .OBJ file formats, both of which are supported by numerous 3D printers and 3D printing services.
Scripting and ProgrammingEdit
Rhinoceros supports two scripting languages, Rhinoscript (based on VBScript) and Python (V5.0+ and Mac). It also has an SDK, and a complete plug-in system. One McNeel plug-in, a parametric modeling/visual programming tool called Grasshopper, has attracted many architects to Rhinoceros due to its ease of use and ability to create complex algorithmic structures.
Plug-ins and add-onsEdit
- Import & Export
- Scan&Solve for Rhino completely automates basic structural simulation of Rhino solids 
- Diva for Rhino by Solemma LLC: Environmental analysis for buildings. The plug-in was initially developed at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University and is now distributed and developed by Solemma LLC.
- KeyShot by Luxion: Rendering and animation
- Octane Render for Rhino by OTOY
- Maxwell Render for Rhino by Next Limit Technologies
- Thea Render by Altair Engineering
- nVidia Iray for Rhino by Nvidia
- V-Ray for Rhino by Chaos Group: Rendering
- Flamingo nXt the nXtRender (formerly AccuRender nXt) for Rhino by Robert McNeel & Associates
- RhinoCycles a opensource renderer for Rhino WIP by Robert McNeel & Associates
- Radeon ProRender a opensource renderer for Rhino WIP by AMD
- Brazil for Rhino the Brazil rendering engine for Rhino by Robert McNeel & Associates (maintenance-mode)
- Realtime Renderer Plug-in for Rhino by Autodesk: rendering (discontinued)
- madCAM by madCAM AB: Mould and Die CAM system for 2.5, 3, 3+2, 4 and 5-axis toolpath creation
- RhinoCAM, RhinoART, Rhino3DPrint, RhinoCAM-Mill, RhinoCAM-Nest, RhinoCAM-Turn by Mecsoft: machining, rapid prototyping
- RhinoGold, RhinoNest, RhinoEmboss, Clayoo by TDM Solutions: jewelry, manufacturing, modeling
- VisualARQ by Asuni CAD: BIM architectural modeling tool
- RhinoWorks by Bricsys: Constraint-based parametric design in Rhino
- Shape Modelling for Rhino by Autodesk. Creation, analysis and modification of freeform surfaces
- T-splines for Rhino by Autodesk: T-splines modelling
- Urban Network Analysis by the joint MIT-SUTD International Design Center (IDC) to describe spatial patterns of cities using mathematical network analysis methods 
- Mindesk by Mindesk: 3D modeling in virtual reality.
- Rhinoceros received Gold Customer Satisfaction Award from CNCCookbook 2017 CAD Survey 
For an extended overview of additional plugins see http://www.rhino3d.com/resources/
- "Download Rhino 6.0 for Windows". Robert McNeel & Associates.
- LLC, Novedge. "Rhino 5 for Windows".
- "Rhinoceros Resources". Rhino3d.com. Retrieved 2015-06-24.
- "Rhinoceros index of import/export file types". docs.mcneel.com. Retrieved 2015-06-24.
- THUILIER, Félix. "Rhino plug-ins to convert, import and export files".
- "3D Print Button on Food 4 Rhino". Rhino3d.com. Retrieved 2016-03-08.
- "3D Hubs 3D Printing plugin for Rhino on Food 4 Rhino". Rhino3d.com. Retrieved 2016-03-08.
- "Rhino3DPRINT on Food 4 Rhino". Rhino3d.com. Retrieved 2016-03-08.
- "AEC Magazine - Rhino Grasshopper".
- "Simulate Early, Simulate Often... In Rhino".
- Official website. diva4rhino.
- "KeyShot - 3D Rendering and Animation Software".
- "Photorealistic Rendering with Iray for Rhino - NVIDIA Iray".
- "Brazil for Rhino".
- Future of Brazil. Robert McNeel & Associates. November 14, 2016
- "Realtime Renderer Plug-in for Rhino". Archived from the original on 12 December 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
- "The future of Autodesk plug-ins for Rhino". Autodesk. November 17, 2016.
- RhinoWorks at bricsys.com. 14 November 2014.
- Shape Modeling plug-in for Rhino. Autodesk.
- T-Splines at Autodesk.com. 14 November 2014.
- "MIT-Singapore design center creates free software tool to analyze cities as spatial networks".
- "CNCCookbook 2017 CAD Survey Results".