Energy in Serbia describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Serbia.

History edit

On 6 October 1893, the first Serbian power plant, located in the Dorćol urban neighborhood of Belgrade, began production of electricity.[1]

In 1900, the first alternating current hydroelectric power plant Pod gradom in Užice on the river Đetinja went online. The first alternating current transmission line from hydroelectric power plant Vučje to Leskovac, with the length of 17 kilometres (11 mi), went online three years later.[2][3] In 1909, hydroelectric plants Gamzigrad in Zaječar and Sveta Petka in Niš began to build.[4] Two years later, the hydroelectric power station on the river Moravica in Ivanjica was put in the operation.[5]

In Belgrade, the power plant Snaga i Svetlost was built in 1933, being one of the largest in the Balkans at that time.

The establishment of the Električno preduzeće Srbije followed in 1945. Between 1947 and 1950, the hydroelectric power plant Sokolovica and coal power plants Mali Kostolac and Veliki Kostolac, the first power stations to be built in Serbia after the Second World War.[6] In 1952, the underground mining of the coal field Kolubara had started. Four years later, coal power plant RB Kolubara went in operation. A year earlier, the hydroelectric power plants Vlasina and Zvornik have been connected to the power grid. In the period from 1960 to 1967, hydroelectric power plants Bistrica, Kokin Brod and Potpeć were under construction.

In the period from 1942 to 1943, Serbia conducted the first exploration potential of oil field. The first drill hole was made in 1947 in Banat (Velika Greda), and in 1949 founded the company Naftagas.

Đerdap II (Serbia)

In 1965, Združeno elektroprivredno preduzeće Srbije was founded. The coal-fired power plant Bajina Bašta began with the production of electricity a year later. The two largest power plants in Serbia, the hydroelectric power plant HPP Đerdap I at the Danube river and the coal power plant TENT, went into operation in 1970. Twelve years later, the pumped storage plant Bajina Bašta was built, and in 1990 the hydroelectric power station Pirot was put into operation.

Electricity edit

Serbia electricity production by source

The main producer of electricity in Serbia is Elektroprivreda Srbije. The company has an installed capacity of 7,662 MW and generates 38.9 TWh of electricity per year. Its installed capacity in lignite-fired thermal power plant is 4,390 MW, gas-fired and liquid fuel-fired combined heat and power plants is 336 MW, and hydro power plants is 2,936 MW.[7] EPS is also the largest producer of lignite in Serbia operating in the Kolubara and Kostolac basins, producing around 37 million tonnes per year.[8] Also, 20 MW is generated from wind power, mainly through facilities of MK Fintel Wind.

In order to increase the efficiency of the sector through the action of market mechanisms in the production and supply of electricity, the Serbian government has introduced competition in the electricity sector by adopting the Law on Energy in 2004. All electricity consumers are tariff buyers which are, according to the law, provided by electricity retailer responsible to supply tariff customers within Elektroprivreda Srbije at regulated prices. At the same time buyers who meet the criteria according to the Act is given the opportunity to become a qualified buyer, and thus get the opportunity to purchase electricity on the open market. In the first phase, the electricity market has been open to all potential customers with an annual electricity consumption was above 25 GWh. From 1 January 2007, the Council of the Energy Agency of the Republic of Serbia made decision that the right to acquire the status of an eligible customer is available to all electricity customers with an annual consumption of more than 3 GWh.

Electricity generated in Serbia
2017[9] 2018[10] 2019[11] 2020[12]
Type GWh % GWh % GWh % GWh %
Coal 23,864 72.10 22,546 65.29 22,720 68.30 23,935 70.34
Hydro 8,740 26.41 11,329 32.81 9,027 27.14 8,609 25.30
Wind 48 0.15 124 0.36 913 2.74 963 2.83
Solar 13 0.04 10 0.03 16 0.05 13 0.04
Gas 351 1.06 399 1.15 472 1.42 317 0.93
Biomass 72 0.22 120 0.35 115 0.35 189 0.56
Unspecified fossil 11 0.03 (3) (0.01) 0.5 0.00 0.6 0.00
Total 33,100 100 34,525 100 33,263 100 34,028 100

Shifting from coal to renewable sources, and therefore the need for new hydro, wind and solar generation plants, is a recognized goal in the Serbian politics. In July 2021 the country's energy and mining minister stated in an interview that the new energy strategy was under preparation, under it up to 50% electricity would be generated from renewable sources by 2040;[13] later in November 2021 she said in another interview that "by 2040 or 2050 (Serbia) should have zero lignite (consumption)" and that such shift would require minimum 17 billion euro investment.[14]

Oil and natural gas edit

NIS refinery in Pančevo

Naftna Industrija Srbije (NIS) is the only company in Serbia which deals with exploration and production of crude oil and gas, as well as with production of geothermal energy.[15] The company disposes with all necessary equipment for the performance of a whole range of complex activities such as geophysical exploration, control of production of crude oil, gas and geothermal energy. The majority of NIS oil fields are located on the territory of Serbia, in Banat region, but upstream has business operations both in Serbia and abroad. In 2011 NIS started to expand business in south-east Europe: in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania and Hungary.[16][17][18]

The company owns and operates oil refineries in Pančevo (annual capacity 4.8 million tons of crude oil) and Novi Sad (annual capacity 2.6 million tons of crude oil), and natural gas refinery in Elemir. NIS refining complex produces a whole range of petroleum products - from motor gasoline and diesel fuel to mechanical lube oils and feedstock for the petrochemical industry, heavy fuel oil, road and industrial bitumen, etc.

Srbijagas, public gas company, operates the natural gas transportation system which comprise 3,177 kilometers of trunk and regional natural gas pipelines and a 450 million cubic meter underground gas storage facility at Banatski Dvor.[19]

Refined petroleum products - production: 60,220 barrels per day (9,574 m3/d)

Oil - production: 23,160 barrels per day (3,682 m3/d)

Oil - consumption: 81,540 barrels per day (12,964 m3/d) (2011)

Oil - proved reserves: 77.5 million barrels (12.32×10^6 m3) (1 January 2006)

Natural gas - production: 557 million cubic metres (2012)

Natural gas - consumption: 2.84 billion cubic metres (2012) [20]

December 2023 sees a Bulgaria-Serbia gas interconnector becoming operational, 170km long, with a 1,8 billion cubic meters of gas per year capacity, it will allow gas to be supplied to Serbia from Azerbaijan, with whom Serbia has signed a supply agreement.[21]

Renewable energy edit

Installed capacity of hydro power is 2,835 MW and as of December 2019 wind power capacity is 500 MW.[22][23] Serbia also makes use of geothermal and solar energy, currently 27% of Serbia's electricity comes from hydro while 4% comes from other renewables.[20] Additional 600 MW of wind capacity is planned by 2030.[23]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "120 godina elektrifikacije Srbije". (in Serbian). Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  2. ^ "Hidroelektrana Vučje". (in Serbian). Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  3. ^ "Vucje Power Plant – a World Heritage Gem". Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  4. ^ "Hidroelektrana "Gamzigrad"". (in Serbian). Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  5. ^ "Nine decades of hydroelectric power station "Moravica" in Ivanjica". Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  6. ^ ""Oteta" elektrana – temelj buduće Elektroprivrede". (in Serbian). Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  7. ^ "Производни капацитети". (in Serbian). Archived from the original on 15 January 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  8. ^ "EPS". Energy Fundamentals. Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  9. ^ Godisnji izvestaj o nacionalnom rezidualnom miksu 2017
  10. ^[bare URL PDF]
  11. ^[bare URL PDF]
  12. ^[bare URL PDF]
  13. ^ "Serbia to invest $7.1bn in new power production capacities by 2040". Retrieved 2021-12-17.
  14. ^ Sekularac, Ivana; Vasovic, Aleksandar (2021-11-04). "Serbia eyes 17 bln euro investment in renewable energy in next 20 years". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-12-17.
  15. ^ "Cooperation of Vojvodina and NIS in the field of geothermal energy".
  16. ^ "Serbia's NIS to expand in four E. European states". Reuters. 2 September 2011. Archived from the original on 20 August 2016.
  17. ^ "NIS plans to invest into Romania several hundred million euros".
  18. ^ "NIS and RAGF signed an Agreement on Exploration in Hungary".
  19. ^ "Transport prirodnog gasa | Srbijagas". Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
  20. ^ a b "Serbia". 8 December 2021.
  21. ^ "The Serbia-Bulgaria gas interconnection will soon start on a trial basis". 3 December 2023.
  22. ^ "Electric Power Industry of Serbia 2004" (PDF). RENEUER. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 November 2010. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  23. ^ a b "Srbija će do 2020. godine dostići 500 MW struje iz SNAGE VETRA". (in Serbian). Retrieved 2019-12-20.